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Page: https://www.hochschule-ruhr-west.de//research/institute-of-positive-computing/publikationen/
Date: 04.03.2024, 03:20Clock

Institute of Positive Computing


Albrecht-Gansohr, C., Geisler, S., & Eimler, S. C. (2023). Playful Co-Design: Creating an AR-Prototype with Nurses in Interlocking Remote and On-Site Workshops. Extended Abstracts of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. https://doi.org/10.1145/3544549.3573869

Deeply engaging nurses in a participatory co-design process, especially in times of COVID-19, is challenging. In this case study, we shed light on the process of developing a prototype for AR-glasses in nursing. We show the challenges we faced, the methods we used and how they contribute to the core principles of participatory design. A special focus is laid on small-scale interventions with high-impact, that helped us to truly engage users. We introduce empathetic ways to connect contrasting work environments, establish mutual understanding, make the abstract more graspable with playful tools like PLAYMOBIL®, and support co-design development with online formats. Finally, we discuss the transferability to other projects.

Börsting, J., Schwarze, V., & Eimler, S. C. (2023). Tell me why—Combating racism on social media with knowledge. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Media Psychology Division (DGPs), 110. https://doi.org/10.26298/1981-5555

Social media come with a wide range of valuable benefits ranging from social exchange to entertainment (Bayer et al., 2020; Trepte, 2021). Nevertheless, more and more negative content such as racist comments are distributed via social media as well (Matamoros-Fernández & Farkas, 2021). This has serious consequences for individuals who are facing racist comments and racial discrimination, such as decreased well-being, depressive symptoms, and anxiety (Cano et al., 2021; Layug, et al., 2022; McCready et al., 2021; Tao & Fisher, 2022; Ybarra et al., 2011). Currently, there is a lack of sophisticated approaches for supporting users in dealing with racial discrimination online. We address this challenge by applying innovative technology (i.e. a virtual learning companion; VLC) that can support users when dealing with toxic content on social media in real-time. With this premise, we investigate the impact of a VLC in the form of an add-on component that guides and informs users of critical content and its implications directly when they encounter it in their social media environment. We argue that the VLC can help raising users’ awareness for the severe consequences of racial discrimination and increase their knowledge associated with racism on social media. This can be a first step toward the long-term elimination of racial discrimination online. We assume that users supported by the VLC show better results in behavioral tasks related to racism (i.e. a quiz on racism, identifying racism in social media postings, and reporting a social media posting consisting of racism) than users not supported. Furthermore, we investigate whether the impact of the VLC is influenced by users’ social media literacy and own experiences with racism. Our hypotheses are analyzed quantitively using data collected in schools with N = 100 students aged from 13 to 16 years (M = 13.45, SD = .62).

Eimler, S. C., Börsting, J., & Schwarze, V. (2023). Imagine it was you—Empathy as the key for reducing cyberbullying on social media. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Media Psychology Division (DGPs), 111. https://doi.org/10.26298/1981-5555

Cyberbullying is a predominant challenge in the context of social media. It is a behavior “performed through electronic or digital media by individuals or groups that repeatedly communicates hostile or aggressive messages intended to inflict harm or discomfort on others” (Tokunaga, 2010; p. 278). Consequences of cyberbullying can include negative emotional states, somatic complaints, or even suicidal thoughts (Hellfeldt et al., 2020; Herge et al., 2015; Kim et al., 2019; Wigderson & Lynch, 2013; Zaborskis et al., 2019). Strikingly, perpetrators and other users facing cyberbullying (e.g., bystanders) are not fully aware about these consequences and may have difficulties to empathize with the victims. Therefore, users’ ability to take another person’s perspective and understand their pain must be strengthened. We argue that this perspective-taking can help to raise mutual awareness and reduce the occurrence of cyberbullying. In this light, we aim to increase users’ empathy by means of an empathy training, guided by a virtual learning companion (VLC) within users’ social media environment in which they typically encounter cyberbullying. This VLC acts like a knowledgeable peer (instead of an unknown expert) and trains users’ affective and cognitive empathy via messenger-based communication by providing concrete definitions, examples, and tips around cyberbullying. This training conducted by the VLC should contribute to increase users’ empathy and, in the long-term, reduce cyberbullying on social media. More precisely, we assume that users taking the empathy training show lower intentions to be a perpetrator in the future, higher levels of affective and cognitive empathy, higher intentions to help a victim, and less intentions to reinforce a bully compared to adolescents not taking the empathy training. In order to test our hypotheses, we conduct quantitative analyses using data collected in schools with N = 125 students aged from 11 to 14 years (M = 12.25, SD = .52)

Eimler, S. C., & Straßmann, C. (2023). Future Proof: Hackathons as Occasions to Experience Entrepreneurial Thinking. In J. H. Block, J. Halberstadt, N. Högsdal, A. Kuckertz, & H. Neergaard (Hrsg.), Progress in Entrepreneurship Education and Training: New Methods, Tools, and Lessons Learned from Practice (S. 417–429). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28559-2_27

The pandemic has opened up room for a creative reinvention of traditional teaching and learning formats making entrepreneurial skills, as, e.g., described in the EntreComp framework, a more pronounced part of the curriculum. As part of the course “Positive Computing and Diversity in Human Computer Interaction,” which is offered to students of different study programs within the computer science department, a (coding-free) two-day online hackathon was organized as an occasion to experience and strengthen entrepreneurial skills. Two major goals were pursued with the work documented in this chapter: (a) providing students with an intense, challenging hands-on experience of different facets of their own entrepreneurial potential, and (b) describing example hackathon events regarding the content, technical and organizational structure as recommendation for practitioners. Consequently, besides outlining a pilot hackathon, the chapter describes essential elements of the course, in which the hackathon was embedded, and content as well as didactic orchestration of both, the course and the hackathon. Evaluation data from two hackathon rounds are presented and taken up in a discussion and reflection.

Erle, L., Timm, L., Straßmann, C., & Eimler, S. C. (2023). Using Focus Group Interviews to Examine Biased Experiences in Human-Robot-Interaction. arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2310.01421

When deploying interactive agents like (social) robots in public spaces they need to be able to interact with a diverse audience, with members each having individual diversity characteristics and prior experiences with interactive systems. To cater for these various predispositions, it is important to examine what experiences citizens have made with interactive systems and how these experiences might create a bias towards such systems. To analyze these bias-inducing experiences, focus group interviews have been conducted to learn of citizens’ individual discrimination experiences, their attitudes towards and arguments for and against the deployment of social robots in public spaces. The presentation focuses especially on the method and measurement of diversity.

Fulantelli, G., Taibi, D., Scifo, L., Schwarze, V., & Eimler, S. C. (2022). Cyberbullying and Cyberhate as Two Interlinked Instances of Cyber-Aggression in Adolescence: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.909299

In this paper we present the results of a systematic review aimed at investigating what the literature reports on cyberbullying and cyberhate, whether and to what extent the connection between the two phenomena is made explicit, and whether it is possible to identify overlapping factors in the description of the phenomena. Specifically, for each of the 24 selected papers, we have identified the predictors of cyberbullying behaviors and the consequences of cyberbullying acts on the victims; the same analysis has been carried out with reference to cyberhate. Then, by comparing what emerged from the literature on cyberbullying with what emerged from the literature on cyberhate, we verify to what extent the two phenomena overlap in terms of predictors and consequences. Results show that the cyberhate issue related to adolescents is less investigated than cyberbullying, and most of the papers focusing on one of them do not refer to the other. Nevertheless, by comparing the predictors and outcomes of cyberbullying and cyberhate as reported in the literature, an overlap between the two concepts emerges, with reference to: the parent-child relationship to reduce the risk of cyber-aggression; the link between sexuality and cyber-attacks; the protective role of the families and of good quality friendship relationships; the impact of cyberbullying and cyberhate on adolescents' individuals' well-being and emotions; meaningful analogies between the coping strategies put in practice by victims of cyberbullying and cyberhate. We argue that the results of this review can stimulate a holistic approach for future studies on cyberbullying and cyberhate where the two phenomena are analyzed as two interlinked instances of cyber-aggression. Similarly, prevention and intervention programs on a responsible and safe use of social media should refer to both cyberbullying and cyberhate issues, as they share many predictors as well as consequences on adolescents' wellbeing, thus making it diminishing to afford them separately.

Hermann, J., & Dogangün, A. (2023). Participation between IT Students and People with Disabilities: Initial Findings from a Service-Learning Project. Mensch und Computer 2023 - Workshopband. Mensch und Computer 2023, Rapperswil. https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws02-443

By participating in the software development process, people with disabilities can have a say in how and for what they want to be supported by the resulting IT artifacts. Although the involvement strengthens the empowerment of this underrepresented target group here, people with intellectual disabilities in particular are still rarely included in the (early) stages of development. In our paper we want to contribute to changing this by presenting the participatory approach to requirements analysis and idea development in the service learning course "Inclusive IT Design" and reflecting on our first insights, also with regard to the empowerment of the target group.

Hermann, J., Mäder, A. D., Kubullek, A.-K., Hey, C.-C., & Dogangün, A. (2023). (Intelligent) Technical Systems in Elderly Care: The Caregivers Perspective. Proceedings of the 34th Australian Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 81–87. https://doi.org/10.1145/3572921.3572948

The market for (intelligent) support systems for nursing of an increasingly aging population has grown rapidly in recent years. Nevertheless, only a few of these systems have found their way into the care of the elderly. An important point, in addition to the lack of refinancing structures in the health care system, is the reservations of those in need of care and those caring for them. With our study, we tried to get an insight into the everyday care work and to better understand the attitudes of caregivers towards the use of technology in elderly care, especially with a focus on artificial intelligence. In our paper, we present the results from a contextual inquiry, interviews, and a workshop for this purpose.

Hermann, J., Nierobisch, N., Arndt, R., Kubullek, A.-K., Van Ledden, S., & Dogangün, A. (2023). The Impact of Explanation Detail in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: User Experience, Acceptance, and Age-Related Effects. Proceedings of Mensch Und Computer 2023, 307–312. https://doi.org/10.1145/3603555.3608536

User understanding and confidence are critical in the context of advanced intelligent driver assistance systems (ADAS) to ensure the desired response and prevent manual countersteering during automated maneuvers. However, the interventions of advanced ADAS can sometimes be unexpected and disruptive to drivers, especially when the reasons are unclear. In our study, we investigated the effects of differently presented explanations provided by a driver assistance system. We presented participants with three scenarios from the driver’s perspective and created two videos for each scenario with explanations of varying detail. Participants were asked to answer two questionnaires following each video. The results show that more detailed explanations generally lead to a better user experience and higher confidence in the system’s performance. We also discuss the possible influence of age and technology acceptance in our article.

Kubullek, A.-K., & Dogangün, A. (2023). Creating Accessibility 2.0 with Artificial Intelligence. Proceedings of Mensch Und Computer 2023, 437–441. https://doi.org/10.1145/3603555.3608541

Despite the fact that artificial intelligence (AI) has existed for many years, for the first time it managed to attract the attention of the mainstream media. Since the release of the chatbot system "ChatGPT" by OpenAI in November 2022 the hype and interest in AI has increased significantly, not only in research but also among the general public. As a result, the question arises which specific application areas and target groups can benefit from artificial intelligence in the future. This article provides an overview of the use of artificial intelligence in creating accessibility. For this purpose, various aspects are considered on how AI technologies can contribute to removing barriers for people with disabilities and enable them to participate equally in social life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the potentials and challenges of uniting AI and accessibility. It discusses the contribution that artificial intelligence can make to closing the gap between technology and accessibility. Finally, a concept idea for the creation of a new kind of accessibility, the so-called Accessibility 2.0, is proposed.

Lisetschko, A., Ferizovic, M., Beder, M., Roth, S., van Ledden, S., & Dogangün, A. (2023). Towards an UX/CX research-framework for HRI along the Customer Journey-a methodological note. https://dl.gi.de/items/f7f07364-ad6b-46f2-810a-56ea95cbbd58

The overarching societal integration of social robots requires positive experiences. However, frameworks for specifically considering the interaction experience with social robots in public spaces do ot exist. Previous research suggests that the experience concepts of User Experience (UX) and Customer Experience (CX) should be equally considered in the design process of applications of social robots. Building on this, we propose an interdisciplinary framework for evaluating and optimizing UX and CX in human-robot interaction (HRI), along the Customer Journey (CJ). The framework differentiates interdisciplinary evaluation criteria along adapted contact phases compared to the conventional CJ including the identification of associated touchpoints with a focus on UX and CX. It considers how the individual touchpoints and experiences made at each touchpoint (pain and gain points) during the respective phase can be methodically evaluated and related to each other. It is meant as a concept from which implications can be derived as to how UX and CX can be integrated into the interaction concepts in order to achieve a long-term stable intention to use and loyalty.

Malzahn, N., Schwarze, V., Eimler, S. C., Aprin, F., Moder, S., & Hoppe, H. U. (2023). How to measure disagreement as a premise for learning from controversy in a social media context. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 18, 012. https://doi.org/10.58459/rptel.2023.18012

Learning scenarios building on disagreement in a learning group or a whole classroom are well established in modern pedagogy. In the specific tradition of collaborative learning, such approaches have been traced back to theories of socio-cognitive conflict and have been associated with argumentative learning interactions. An important premise for these types of learning scenarios is the identification of disagreement. In the spirit of learning analytics, this calls for analytic tools and mechanisms to detect and measure disagreement in learning groups.
Our mathematical analysis of several methods shows that methods of different origin are largely equivalent, only differing in the normalization factors and ensuing scaling properties. We have selected a measure that scales best and applied it to a target scenario in which learners judged types and levels of “toxicity” of social media content using an interactive tagging tool. Due restrictions imposed by the pandemic, we had to replace the originally envisaged classroom scenario by online experiments. We report on two consecutive experiments involving 42 students in the first and 89 subjects in the second instance. The results corroborate the adequacy of the measure in combination with the interactive, game-based approach to collecting judgements. We also saw that a revision of categories after the first study reduced the ambiguity. In addition to applying the disagreement measure to the learner judgements, we also assessed several personality traits, such as authoritarianism and social closeness. Regarding the dependency of the learner judgements on personality traits, we could only observe a weak influence of authoritarianism.

Nieß, N., Breitenbach, J. N., Szymczyk, C., & Bumiller, G. (2023). Comprehensive Approach to on Line EMI Filter Characterization at Full Load Current. 2023 IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and its Applications (ISPLC), 31–36. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISPLC57122.2023.10104179

Existing setups to measure the attenuation and impedance behavior of EMC filters mostly work off line, without any load current flowing through the filter and with terminations either at 50 Ohms or using a standard LISN. With an ever increasing number of filters required on the network to keep larger PLC rollouts stable, their impedance and attenuation in realistic operating conditions becomes an increasingly important, but hard to measure specific. A measurement system design is presented to measure an EMC filter’s impedance and attenuation in the narrowband-PLC range up to 1 MHz while connected to mains, at high load currents and with realistic terminations. Through a comprehensive, system level design approach the measurement system’s dynamic, accuracy and repeatability are increased, while its handling is less error prone and the overall safety of the system’s usage is increased.

Schwarze, V., Eimler, S. C., & Krämer, N. C. (2023). Picturing diversity: Exploring children’s perception of intergroup differences. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Media Psychology Division (DGPs), 113. https://doi.org/10.26298/1981-5555

Asking someone where they are from or remarking on how well they speak a certain language may seem harmless at first glance. However, the repeated experience of such incidents, whether intentional or unintentional, embedded in the daily lives of marginalized groups (i.e., everyday racism, Essed, 1991), is not only hurtful but may have serious consequences such as social exclusion (Rutland & Killen, 2015). Reflecting on these incidents includes addressing the process of “othering.” This phenomenon refers to stereotyping people as “others”, deviating from the “norm” of society, making them feel that they do not actually belong to the same group (Rohleder, 2014). Since stereotypes are learned early in life, the present study investigates how visual markers affect children’s perceptions of intergroup differences. For this purpose, stickers were designed with cartoon characters that vary systematically by (i) gender, (ii) racial and ethnic diversity, and (iii) the character’s t-shirt (plain vs. pattern) as a transient marker (see Kiss et al., 2021). Participants (aged 6 to 10 years) are asked to categorize the characters into any number of groups (see Gedeon et al., 2020). To examine the criteria according to which participants sort the characters, the sorting of the stickers and the explanation for it are analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010). Additionally, the characters are rated on a 4-point scale from 1 (no way) to 4 (yes, definitely). Following Gedeon et al. (2020), three items measure cultural distance, consisting of the factors language, eating habits, and music (e.g., “This child eats the same food as I do.”). Three self-derived items address stereotypes related to anti-Black racism, anti-Asian racism, and anti-Muslim racism (e.g., "This child is particularly good at math."). Based on the results, recommendations for a mobile interactive intervention are discussed that helps children to challenge the social “norm”.

Schumacher, S., & Eimler, S. C. (2023). Creativity in Entrepreneurship Education: Insights from Online Ideation Courses. In J. H. Block, J. Halberstadt, N. Högsdal, A. Kuckertz, & H. Neergaard (Hrsg.), Progress in Entrepreneurship Education and Training: New Methods, Tools, and Lessons Learned from Practice (S. 449–464). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28559-2_29

Creativity is an important resource for driving innovation. The authors show how entrepreneurship is made usable as a key competence for application-oriented adaptation in digital higher education and how new formats of virtual courses for training creativity are designed and implemented. They outline how EntreComp is used as a quality-ensuring framework and how aspects of computer-mediated communication are incorporated.

Straßmann, C., Helgert, A., Breil, V., Settelmayer, L., & Diehl, I. (2023). Exploring the Use of Colored Ambient Lights to Convey Emotional Cues With Conversational Agents: An Experimental Study. 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 99–105. https://doi.org/10.1109/RO-MAN57019.2023.10309310

Conversational agents (CAs) lack of possibilities to enrich the interaction with emotional cues, although this makes the conversation more human-like and enhances user engagement. Thus, the potential of CAs is not fully exploited and possibilities to convey emotional cues are needed. In this work, CAs use colored ambient lights to display moral emotions during the interaction. To evaluate this approach, a between-subject lab experiment (N=64) was conducted. Participants played a cooperation game with Amazon’s Alexa. Depending on the experimental condition participants received different light expressions: no light, neutral light, or morally emotional light (yellow = joy, blue = sorrow, red = anger matching the game decisions). The effect of the light expressions on the perception of the CA, users’ empathy and cooperation behavior was tested. Against our assumptions, the results indicated no positive effect of the emotional light cues. Limitations, next steps, and implications are discussed.

Van Ledden, S., Dogangün, A., & Hermann, J. (2023). ELSI Product Owner: Integration of Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects in Agile Development Processes. Proceedings of Mensch Und Computer 2023, 313–317. https://doi.org/10.1145/3603555.3608538

Integrating ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) into agile processes is crucial for human-centered design. However, the integration of ELSI within an agile work environment remains a challenge. To address this issue, we propose a new role, the ELSI Product Owner (ELSI-PO), within the Scrum process. The ELSI-PO serves as a mediator and communicator, responsible for negotiating ELSI aspects with stakeholders and ensuring their operationalization throughout the development process. In this paper, we present the steps taken to develop the ELSI-PO concept, we discuss the organizational positioning of the ELSI-PO in Scrum environments and we outline the tasks of the ELSI-PO in different Scrum phases. Our work-in-progress concept offers a solution to meet the growing demands for ELSI as a fixed building block in the agile framework.


Arntz, A., Adler, F., Kitzmann, D., & Eimler, S.C. (accepted). Augmented Reality Supported Real-Time Data Processing Using Internet of Things Sensor Technology. HCI International 2022.

Internet of things (IoT) devices increasingly permeate everyday life and provide vital and convenient information. Augmented reality (AR) enables the embedding of this information in the environment using visualizations that can contextualize data for various applications such as Smart Home. Current applications providing a visual representation of the information are often limited to graphs or bar charts, neglecting the variety of possible coherence between the subject and the visualization. We present a setup for real-time AR-based visualizations of data collected by IoT devices. Three distinct battery-powered IoT microcontroller systems were designed and programmed. Each is outfitted with numerous sensors, i.e. for humidity or temperature, to interact with the developed AR application through a network connection. The AR application was developed using Unity3D and the Vuforia AR SDK for Android-based mobile devices with the goal of providing processed and visualized information that is comprehensible for the respective context. Inspired by weather applications for mobile devices, the visualization contains animated dioramas, with changing attributes based on the input data from the IoT microcontroller. This work contains the configuration of the IoT microcontroller hardware, the network interface used, the development process of the AR application, and its usage, complemented by possible future extensions described in an outlook.

Arntz, A., Straßmann, C., Völker, S., & Eimler, S. C. (2022). Collaborating eye to eye: Effects of workplace design on the perception of dominance of collaboration robots. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 9.

The concept of Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) describes innovative industrial work procedures, in which human staff works in close vicinity with robots on a shared task. Current HRC scenarios often deploy hand-guided robots or remote controls operated by the human collaboration partner. As HRC envisions active collaboration between both parties, ongoing research efforts aim to enhance the capabilities of industrial robots not only in the technical dimension but also in the robot’s socio-interactive features. Apart from enabling the robot to autonomously complete the respective shared task in conjunction with a human partner, one essential aspect lifted from the group collaboration among humans is the communication between both entities. State-of-the-art research has identified communication as a significant contributor to successful collaboration between humans and industrial robots. Non-verbal gestures have been shown to be contributing aspect in conveying the respective state of the robot during the collaboration procedure. Research indicates that, depending on the viewing perspective, the usage of non-verbal gestures in humans can impact the interpersonal attribution of certain characteristics. Applied to collaborative robots such as the Yumi IRB 14000, which is equipped with two arms, specifically to mimic human actions, the perception of the robots’ non-verbal behavior can affect the collaboration. Most important in this context are dominance emitting gestures by the robot that can reinforce negative attitudes towards robots, thus hampering the users’ willingness and effectiveness to collaborate with the robot. By using a 3 × 3 within-subjects design online study, we investigated the effect of dominance gestures (Akimbo, crossing arms, and large arm spread) working in a standing position with an average male height, working in a standing position with an average female height, and working in a seated position on the perception of dominance of the robot. Overall 115 participants (58 female and 57 male) with an average age of 23 years evaluated nine videos of the robot. Results indicated that all presented gestures affect a person’s perception of the robot in regards to its perceived characteristics and willingness to cooperate with the robot. The data also showed participants’ increased attribution of dominance based on the presented viewing perspective.

Bauer, M., Leidner, N., Willhauk, W., Gansohr, C., & Geisler, S. (2022). Measuring Decubitus Wounds Using Augmented Reality Glasses-A User Interface Study. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 512-519). Springer, Cham.

We present a study on the usability of three different user interfaces for an augmented reality glasses system. The application is intended for use in hospitals by nursing professionals. During wound care, images can be taken with the Microsoft HoloLens 2 and measured directly. The photos must always be taken at the same distance from the wound to follow the healing process. We present and juxtapose three aim assistants to take a picture of the wound and acquire wound data. To gain a first impression about the goodness of usability and the preferred targeting assistant, we conducted a small usability study. Participants were asked to perform wound measuring tasks using our application’s varying user interfaces. In this study, we identified strengths and weaknesses for each user interface based on the conducted research and identified approaches for further improvements.

Detjen, H., Schneegass, S., Geisler, S., Kun, A., & Sundar, V. (2022, September). An Emergent Design Framework for Accessible and Inclusive Future Mobility. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (pp. 1-12).

Future mobility will be highly automated, multimodal, and ubiquitous and thus have the potential to address a broader range of users. Yet non-average users with special needs are often underrepresented or simply not thought of in design processes of vehicles and mobility services, leading to exclusion from standard transportation. In consequence, it is crucial for designers of such vehicles and services to consider the needs of non-average users from the begin on. In this paper, we present a design framework that helps designers taking the perspective and thinking of the needs of non-average users. We present a set of exemplary applications from the literature and interviews and show how they fit into the framework, indicating room for further developments. We further demonstrate how the framework supports in designing a mobility service in a fictional design process. Overall, our work contributes to universal design of future mobility.

Di Dia, A., Riebner, T., Arntz, A. & Eimler, S.C. (accepted). Augmented-Reality-Based Real-Time Patient Information for Nursing. HCI International 2022.

While the usage of digital systems in the medical sector has increased, nursing activities are still mostly performed without any form of digital assistance. Considering the complex and demanding procedures the medical personnel is confronted with, a high task load is expected which is prone to human errors. Solutions, however, need to match staff requirements and ideally involve them in the development process to ensure acceptance and usage. Based on desired application scenarios, we introduce a concept of an augmented reality (AR)-based patient data application that provides context-relevant information for nursing staff and doctors. Developed for the HoloLens 2, the application allows the retrieval and synchronization of the patient data from the host network of the respective hospital information system. For this purpose, a system infrastructure consisting of several software components was developed to simulate the exchange between the AR device and the independent hospital environment. The paper outlines the conceptual approach based on requirements collected from nurses, related work, the technical implementation and discusses limitations and future developments.

Di Dia, A., Riebner, T., Arntz, A., & Jansen, M.(2022). Prototyping a Smart Contract Application for Fair Reward Distribution in Software Development Projects. In: J. Prieto, A. Pinto, A. Kumar Das, and S. Ferretti (Eds.): Blockchain and Applications, 4th International Congress.

Fulantelli, G., Taibi, D., Scifo, L., Schwarze, V. & Eimler, S. C. (2022). Cyberbullying and Cyberhate as Two Interlinked Instances of Cyber-Aggression in Adolescence: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology13. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.909299

In this paper we present the results of a systematic review aimed at investigating what the literature reports on cyberbullying and cyberhate, whether and to what extent the connection between the two phenomena is made explicit, and whether it is possible to identify overlapping factors in the description of the phenomena. Specifically, for each of the 24 selected papers, we have identified the predictors of cyberbullying behaviors and the consequences of cyberbullying acts on the victims; the same analysis has been carried out with reference to cyberhate. Then, by comparing what emerged from the literature on cyberbullying with what emerged from the literature on cyberhate, we verify to what extent the two phenomena overlap in terms of predictors and consequences. Results show that the cyberhate issue related to adolescents is less investigated than cyberbullying, and most of the papers focusing on one of them do not refer to the other. Nevertheless, by comparing the predictors and outcomes of cyberbullying and cyberhate as reported in the literature, an overlap between the two concepts emerges, with reference to: the parent-child relationship to reduce the risk of cyber-aggression; the link between sexuality and cyber-attacks; the protective role of the families and of good quality friendship relationships; the impact of cyberbullying and cyberhate on adolescents' individuals' well-being and emotions; meaningful analogies between the coping strategies put in practice by victims of cyberbullying and cyberhate. We argue that the results of this review can stimulate a holistic approach for future studies on cyberbullying and cyberhate where the two phenomena are analyzed as two interlinked instances of cyber-aggression. Similarly, prevention and intervention programs on a responsible and safe use of social media should refer to both cyberbullying and cyberhate issues, as they share many predictors as well as consequences on adolescents' wellbeing, thus making it diminishing to afford them separately.

Gansohr, C., Thelen, M. B., Geisler, S., & Eimler, S. C. (2022). Supporting Hospital Nurses During Medication Dispensation with Augmented Reality–A Participatory Approach. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 35-42). Springer, Cham.

The nursing profession is becoming increasingly complex: administrative and nursing tasks have to be performed in parallel, under time pressure and in shifts. These stressful working conditions also affect safety-critical processes such as the correct dispensing of medication. As digitization continues, new technologies such as augmented reality (AR) glasses are emerging that offer potential solutions. However, a practical implementation requires a deep understanding of the underlying problem and user needs. The aim of this paper is to first, discover pains and gains in the process of medication dispensation and second, develop a conceptual prototype for AR glasses as a basis for discussion on the applicability in practice. A participatory design process with nursing professionals and experts from technical and organizational fields was established. As result, we present a conceptual prototype, that (A) respects the context of use, (B) guides users while dispensing medication according to prescription, (C) displays useful information about medical preparations, procurement of alternate medicine and dosage variations and (D) uses checklists and error recognition to increase safety. Multidisciplinary feedback workshops indicate an overall positive resonance. We advise paying attention to the spatial and economic situation while using AR as a support tool providing flexibility for users.

Helgert, A., Canbulat, A., Lingnau, A., & Straßmann, C. (2022). A Framework for Analyzing Interactions in a Video-based Collaborative Learning Environment. In 2022 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT)(pp. 125-127). IEEE.

Studying in social isolation is a reality for many students that was further reinforced after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Research shows that isolation can lead to decreased learning efficiency and is intensified by the increased asynchronous online teaching during the pandemic. This change is not only challenging for students, but also for teachers, as students do not have a direct communication and feedback channel when learning content is presented in form of pre-recorded videos in a learning management system. In this paper, we present VGather2Learn Analytics, which is an extension to the already existing collaborative learning system VGather2Learn, which makes it possible for teachers to analyze the learning behavior of students in asynchronous video-teaching. The information presented in a dashboard will allow teachers to better understand how students interact while watching learning videos collaboratively and can improve online-teaching.

Helgert, A., & Straßmann, C. (2022). What are you Grateful for?-Enhancing Gratitude Routines by Using Speech Assistants. In CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Extended Abstracts (pp. 1-7).

This paper presents an extension for Amazon’s Alexa, which provides a gratitude journal, and investigates its effectiveness compared to a regular paper-based version. Decades of research demonstrate that expressing gratitude has various psychological and physical benefits. At the same time, gratitude routines run the risk of being a hassle activity, which diminishes the positive outcome. Speech assistants might help to integrate gratitude routines more easily in an intuitive way using voice input. The results of our 8-day field study with two experimental groups (Alexa group vs. Paper group, N = 8) show that users see the benefits, that Alexa was effective in reducing participants’ stress and that both groups express their gratitude differently. The positive effect of Alexa was restricted by a security setting (limiting user input to eight seconds) imposed by Amazon, which has now been repealed. The findings give practical and theoretical implications of how verbal gratitude expression affects participants’ well-being.

Helgert, A., Zielinska, L., Groeneveld, A., Kloos, C., Arntz, A., Straßmann, C., & Eimler, S. C. (2022). DiSensity: Ein hochschulweites Virtual Reality Sensibilisierungsprogramm. Wettbewerbsband AVRiL 2022.

Diversitätsbezogene Herausforderungen begegnen den meisten Studierenden, Lehrenden und Mitarbeitenden immer wieder im Hochschulalltag. Manchmal wird uns dies nicht bewusst, da wir nicht ausreichend für das Thema sensibilisiert sind und uns Situationen aus unserer eigenen Perspektive unproblematisch erscheinen oder wir ihnen aus dem Weg gehen, wenn sie uns unangenehm sind. Aus diesen Erfahrungen kann eine Schieflage in der Kommunikation oder der Wahrnehmung der anderen Person entstehen, die Probleme, Konflikte oder ein Gefühl sozialer Isolation erzeugt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine immersive Virtual-Reality-Galerie vorgestellt, welche von Akteur:innen aus den Fach- und Servicebereichen und Studierenden entwickelt wird. Das Ziel ist es, die Sensibilität für Vielfalt und deren Bedeutung im Lehr- und Lerngeschehen hochschulweit und bei allen Akteursgruppen zu steigern. Mit dem Einsatz von multimedialen Inhalten und verschiedenen Interaktionsmechaniken in der virtuellen Welt kann DiSensity als effiziente, kostengünstige und flexible Alternative zu bisherigen Diversitäts-Trainings dienen. 

Hellwig, L., Preissner, L., Pawlowski, J. and Deiters, W. (2022), "How digital fabrication technologies within digitalized innovation environments lead to participative aid development", Journal of Enabling Technologies, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 219-230. https://doi.org/10.1108/JET-01-2022-0013

Facilities such as FabLabs and Makerspaces are characterized by the facilities' wide range of digital fabrication technologies as well as facilities' interdisciplinary user base and collaborative problem solving and product development. These possibilities can also hold great potential for people with disabilities who have a specific need for assistive technology. Since there are no established models of such participatory development processes (PDP) within digitalized innovation environments (DIE), this study intends to provide a comprehensive understanding of these processes along with the influencing factors. Through a cooperation with a Thalidomide Association, various PDPs were accompanied within a DIE and interviews were conducted with 16 stakeholders involved. Hereby, the perspective of thalidomide-affected people (5) as well as the supporting makers (6) and experts (5) were taken into account. Through a subsequent structured analysis, various dimensions as well as relevant influencing factors could be identified. In total, 33 paraphrases could be formed in 8 categories and four dimensions concerning the PDPs investigated. In addition, 17 paraphrases on potentials and challenges could be extracted through generalization. Due to findings' holistic approach, the findings form an empirical basis for further research into this still very young research topic and represent a first step toward theory building. By the applicability of the identified influencing factors an important contribution can be made to the supply of aids and the inclusion of people with disabilities.

Hermann, J., Plückthun, M., Dogangün, A., & Hesenius M. (2022). User-Defined Gesture and Voice Control in Human-Drone Interaction for Police Operations. In Nordic Human-Computer Interaction Conference (NordiCHI '22). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 41, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1145/3546155.3546661

Gesture and voice control are increasingly being used in everyday applications, such as tablets and smartphones, but also for controlling smart home systems or even drones. While several studies exist on how users interact with and issue commands to drones, studies using drones in very specific and highly specialized use cases are rare. In a user-centered approach with twelve German police officers, we examined how police forces would trigger drone functions through self-defined gestures and voice commands. For the study, we considered two deployment scenarios with a total of 21 functions that were developed together with the police. The focus here is on use in large crowds and the pursuit of suspects. We identify sets of custom gestures and possible voice commands.

Hermann, J., Dogangün, A., & Heseniusm M. (2022). Well Drone – Well-Being and Social Acceptance in the Use of Drones through Human-Centered Development and Positive Computing. Nordic Human-Computer Interaction Conference (NordiCHI '22), The 1st International Workshop on Social Drones for Health and Well-being

Although drones have been commercially available, used, and discussed for various use cases for years, many people still have reservations and resentment towards drones. Drones (and their users) are often perceived as somewhat creepy, particularly given the potential for stealth surveillance, and are often associated with war and weapons. In this position paper, we argue that human-centric development methods have to be used in a way that not only involves users, but also includes other perspectives and interest groups that emerge as stakeholders. The development process for drone applications must be thought of in a more participatory,  continuous, and interdisciplinary manner. Here, well-being in the sense of Positive Computing should have a higher priority, especially in expectation of the increase of autonomous and social drones in our everyday lives.

Jansen, M., Fanchamps, N., Milrad, M., Specht, M., & Hamidi, A. (2022). The TACTIDE EU project: TeAching Computational Thinking with Digital dEvices. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Thinking Education. https://doi.org/10.34641/ctestem.2022.466

One major challenge the educational community is facing relates to how to effectively integrate computational thinking (CT) concepts and ideas into a particular school curriculum. Acquiring CT-skills by means of STEM offers rich opportunities within students ́ education which may lead to learning gains. Previous research has shown that, to maximize the appeal and potential of CT learning environments, a precondition must be set first. The materials used must invite problem-based, inquiry-based and self-discovery learning, must be used without creating misconceptions and, above all, must give students the opportunity to acquire knowledge that can be directly transferred to everyday practice in an accessible manner. All the above puts demands on teachers who carry out learning and teaching in these environments. The EU funded TACTIDE project has tried to incorporate relevant curricular components into a coherent task, implementing assignments and challenges across different subjects and curricula of three different European countries. Based on the analysis of each national curricula, common topics have been identified and sub-scenarios have been developed. These sub-scenarios have been conceived to promote the integration between the topics mediated by CT. To achieve this objective, a greenhouse scenario has been conceptualized and designed towards teaching CT, by the use of microcontrollers such as the BBC micro :b it and the Calliope Mini, as an overarching STEM-topic. Using available sub-scenarios, a Moodle-course for teachers was developed for daily school activities to which other subjects in the core curriculum were interconnected in order to integrate CT skills and abilities. Scalability across different school levels and heterogeneous groups of learners, especially focusing prior knowledge, have been considered important design elements.

Kocak, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2022). Characteristics in Digital Organizational Culture: A Literature Review. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and KnowledgeManagement (IC3K2022)-Volume3: KMIS, pp. 31-42

Organizational culture is an important aspect that supports a successful digital transformation in companies. It is an essential component of Digital Transformation and requires a crucial development of competencies, characteristics, and attitudes to create acceptance and openness among employees and managers and enable organizations to adapt to the transformation. This paper deals with the main characteristics and implications of digital organizational culture. A systematic literature review was conducted for the methodology. The identified characteristics were integrated into the defined dimensions (digital communication, proactivity, entrepreneurial orientation, personal competencies, and digital skills and attitudes). The results show that, e.g., fault tolerance, innovation, digital skills, and an agile mindset are central to developing a digital organizational culture. Furthermore, some characteristics (participation, teamwork, agile mindset, digital skills, problemsolving, risk-taking) positively affect the digital organizational culture

Nowak, A., Pawlowski, J., & Schellenbach, M. (2022). The Competency-Based Business Process Management-Employee-Centered Process Improvement for Digital Transformation. In Knowledge Management in Organisations: 16th International Conference, KMO 2022, Hagen, Germany, July 11–14, 2022, Proceedings (pp. 103-117). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Competencies play an important role for successfully mastering tasks in organizations. However, when designing processes as part of Business Process Management projects, tasks and roles are modelled but not the required competencies for mastering certain processes or tasks. Particularly in the age of Digital Transformation, this leads to insecurities and fears of employees in the change process as it is not clear what is needed to stay employed. In our approach, we extend current modeling practices by introducing competencies into business process models. For this purpose, we propose a specific modeling object as this improves readability and visibility of competencies. Additionally, we provide a data model and a competency model to ease the modeling process. The approach was successfully validated in expert interviews with academics and practitioners.

Kocak, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2022). Digitalization Breakers: A Mixed Method For Finding The Concrete Barriers In The Craft Sector. Pacific Asia Conference on Information systems (PACIS) 2022 Proceedings. 53.

Digital Transformation is becoming increasingly important in the economy and is recognized as an opportunity in the skilled crafts sector. Digitization measures have positively impacted processes and customer satisfaction in the skilled crafts sector. As the skilled crafts sector is still traditionally positioned, various challenges hinder the transformation. Which barriers stand in the way of digital transformation in the skilled crafts sector - that is the overarching question of our work. In order to find out the barriers, literature research on (general) digitalization barriers was conducted. The identified barriers were divided into organizational and cultural, individual and technical barriers, and missing skills/ workforce. A qualitative study with N=10 experts was conducted to identify the specific barriers for craft enterprises. Do the results show that most technical, individual barriers and lack of missing skills are reduced through staff training or collaboration.

Nurhas, I., Jahanbin, P., Pawlowski, J., Wingreen, S., & Geisler, S. (2022). Patterns of Sociotechnical Design Preferences of Chatbots for Intergenerational Collaborative Innovation: AQ Methodology Study. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 2022.

Chatbot technology is increasingly emerging as a virtual assistant. Chatbots could allow individuals and organizations to accomplish objectives that are currently not fully optimized for collaboration across an intergenerational context. This paper explores the preferences of chatbots as a companion in intergenerational innovation. The Q methodology was used to investigate different types of collaborators and determine how different choices occur between collaborators that merge the problem and solution domains of chatbots’ design within intergenerational settings. The study’s findings reveal that various chatbot design priorities are more diverse among younger adults than senior adults. Additionally, our research further outlines the principles of chatbot design and how chatbots will support both generations. This research is the first step towards cultivating a deeper understanding of different age groups’ subjective design preferences for chatbots functioning as a companion in the workplace. Moreover, this study demonstrates how the Q methodology can guide technological development by shifting the approach from an age-focused design to a common goal-oriented design within a multigenerational context.

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2022). An intergenerational competency framework: Competencies for knowledge sustainability and start‐up development in the digital age. Sustainable Development.

In this study, we looked at the competencies and changes in the competency spectrum required for global start‐ups in the digital age. Specifically, we explored intergenerational collaboration as an intervention in which experienced business‐people from senior adult groups support young entrepreneurs. We conducted a Delphi study with 20 experts from different disciplines, considering the study context. The results of this study shed light on understanding the necessary competencies of entrepreneurs for intergenerationally supported start‐up innovation by providing 27 competencies categorized as follows: intergenerational safety facilitation, cultural awareness, virtues for growth, effectual creativity, technical expertise, responsive teamwork, values‐based organization, and sustainable network development. In addition, the study results also reveal the competency priorities and the minimum requirements for them.

Nurhas, I., Mattick, X., Geisler, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2022). System Design Principles for Intergenerational Knowledge Sharing. In International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (pp. 458-469). Springer, Cham.

Up to four generations are potentially involved in education and workspaces. This means that people of different generations can increasingly learn together and share knowledge virtually in the digital age. Nevertheless, the principles for designing systems to support intergenerational knowledge sharing (IKS) are inconclusive. Our results demonstrate the value of applying design science research methodology to capture design principles for IKS systems. We articulate what design goals should be considered and bring more conceptual clarity to this phenomenon by presenting five design principles: a) positive personalization, b) progressive design ecosystem, c) effectual system design, d) iterative goal reflection, e) coopetitive intergenerational tasks. By reflecting on the design process and formalizing a class of design principles, we contribute to design-oriented IKS systems in the digital age.

Sieger, L. N., Hermann, J., Schomäcker, A., Heindorf, S., Meske, C., Hey, C., & Doğangün, A. (2022). User Involvement in Training Smart Home Agents: Increasing Perceived Control and Understanding. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI ’22), December 5–8, 2022, Christchurch, New Zealand. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 10 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3527188.3561914

Smart home systems contain plenty of features that enhance wellbeing in everyday life through artificial intelligence (AI). However, many users feel insecure because they do not understand the AI's functionality and do not feel they are in control of it. Combining technical, psychological and philosophical views on AI, we rethink smart homes as interactive systems where users can partake in an intelligent agent's learning. Parallel to the goals of explainable AI (XAI), we explored the possibility of user involvement in supervised learning of the smart home to have a first approach to improve acceptance, support subjective understanding and increase perceived control. In this work, we conducted two studies: In an online pre-study, we asked participants about their attitude towards teaching AI via a questionnaire. In the main study, we performed a Wizard of Oz laboratory experiment with human participants, where participants spent time in a prototypical smart home and taught activity recognition to the intelligent agent through supervised learning based on the user's behaviour. We found that involvement in the AI's learning phase enhanced the users' feeling of control, perceived understanding and perceived usefulness of AI in general. The participants reported positive attitudes towards training a smart home AI and found the process understandable and controllable. We suggest that involving the user in the learning phase could lead to better personalisation and increased understanding and control by users of intelligent agents for smart home automation.

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C., Kololli, L., Arntz, A., van de Sand, K., & Rietz, A. (2022). Effects of the Surrounding in Human-Robot Interaction: Stereotypic Perception of Robots and its Anthropomorphism. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 363-377). Springer, Cham.

Stereotypes and scripts guide human perception and expectations in everyday life. Research has found that a robot’s appearance influences the perceived fit in different application domains (e.g. industrial or social) and that the role a robot is presented in predicts its perceived personality. However, it is unclear how the surroundings as such can elicit a halo effect leading to stereotypical perceptions. This paper presents the results of an experimental study in which 206 participants saw 8 cartoon pictures of the robot Pepper in different application domains in a within-subjects online study. Results indicate that the environment a robot is placed in has an effect on the users’ evaluation of the robot’s warmth, competence, status in society, competition, anthropomorphism, and morality. As the first impression has an effect on users’ expectations and evaluation of the robot and the interaction with it, the effect of the application scenarios has to be considered carefully.

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S. C., Peltzer, I., Hermann, J., Dogangün, A., & Roth, S. (2022). User-centered robots for municipal services: What do customers and service experts expect from robots in municipal institutions?. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 639-655). Springer, Cham.

The present work uses a user-centered design approach to investigate potential design requirements and user scenarios of social robots in municipal services. Qualitative interviews paired with two interactive workshops compared the expectations of potential costumers with those of administration experts of municipalities. The results indicate mainly similar expectations of the robot’s design and functionality, but revealed different perspectives: Customers thought more about specific design characteristics (e.g. the robots body temperature), while administration experts reflected more on service aspects (e.g. adapting the needs of different customers and especially people in need of support or the robustness of the system). Moreover, precise user scenarios that integrate the different ideas and preferences are presented. These can help researchers and practitioners to extract design requirements and application scenarios that are considered by the different stakeholders.

Strassmann, C., Helgert, A. & Lingnau, A. (2022, September, 21-23). Effects of a Collaborative Video-Learning-Tool on Flow Perception, Cognitive Load and Usability Evaluation [Conference presentation]. 4th International Conference on Higher Education Learning Methodologies and Technologies Online, Palermo, Italy

Educational research suggests that the use of videos for teaching, studying and learning can be meaningful and beneficial. E.g., Merkt et al. investigated the role of interactive features comparing print media with video learning [1]. We developed a collaborative framework called VGather2Learn (which in preliminary work was called Learnflix [4]), that supports students to watch and discuss teaching videos collaboratively in groups. By using this tool, students can collaborate on asynchronous teaching content and learn together through a chat and features to highlight specific video passages. VGather2Learn thus provides students with a form of communication and could be a useful tool against isolated learning. To evaluate the VGather2Learn tool and its functionalities a psychological evaluation study got conducted. this work presents a psychological evaluation of a collaborative synchronous video based online learning tool that supports learners to jointly watch and discuss pre-recorded videos. As assumed, the evaluation demonstrated positive effects of the tool, since it enhances important psychological processes (like flow and cognitive load) within the learning process. Moreover, its usability was rated as good and participants showed a high usage intention for the tool. Nevertheless, further investigations in long-term learning courses are needed to finally confirm the tools effectiveness.

Strassmann, C. & Diehl. I. (2022). Alexa Feels Blue and so DoI? Conversational Agents Displaying Emotions Via Light Modalities. In Rossi, S. & Sgorbissa, A. (Eds.), 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot & Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) (pp.415-420). IEEE Press

This paper examines how conversational agents (CAs) can communicate emotions non-verbally using light as communication modality. Therefore, we manipulated the CA Alexa to demonstrate emotions (joy and sorrow) using different light modalities (Echo Dot ring, a Hue lamp and the combination) with either a congruent verbal context (party or funeral) or no verbal context. In an online study 167 participants evaluated the perceived emotion of Alexa, their own emotional state as well as the perception of Alexa after watching a video with a user interacting with Alexa. Although the perceived emotions of Alexa were not affected by the experimental conditions, the results indicate that the perception of Alexa as well as the user’s emotion is affected by the displayed communication modality. As external light can be used to manipulate the users’ perception of CAs, the findings give relevant implications for the design of CAs.

Taibi, D., Börsting, J., Hoppe, U., Ognibene, D., Hernández-Leo, D., & Eimler, S. C. (2022, September, 21-23). Designing Educational Interventions to Increase Students’ Social Media Awareness - Experience From the COURAGE Project [Conference presentation]. 4th International Conference on Higher Education Learning Methodologies and Technologies Online, Palermo, Italy

Social media are an integral part of our everyday lives offering new opportunities for communication and interaction way beyond what was possible only a few years ago. Most people use social media, in order to share experiences, opinions, and news on prominent platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter. The ubiquity and usage intensity causes the situation that even children and adolescents are confronted with very heterogeneous, and sometimes harmful content. Algorithms, network, and content factors of social media may also represent threats for (young) users, ranging from digital addiction, discrimination, hate speech, misinformation, and polarization to manipulative influences of algorithms as well as body stereotyping or cyberbullying. Since users do not know how to protect themselves from harm transmitted through social media or how to help other users, educators are challenged to help students mitigate risks by developing critical skills. Teachers are being given an increasing responsibility in providing learning activities that stimulate reflection on the mechanisms behind the use of social media (e.g., toxic dynamics driven by other users or algorithms providing toxic content). However, educators are not adequately prepared to face these challenges, and, consequently, there is an increasing need to provide them with new methodologies and tools specifically designed for these purposes. Teachers as well as students would benefit from critical social media literacy since social media spaces are not neutral and students need strategies and tools to leverage the opportunities emerging in these spaces. In this perspective, the multinational and multidisciplinary team of the COURAGE project aims at providing educators with new tools and learning methodologies that can be adopted within higher education learning paths to train the educators in facing the social media threats and supporting their students accordingly.

Theophilou, E., Schwarze, V., Börsting, J., Sánchez-Reina, R., Scifo, L., Lomonaco, F., Taibi, D., & Eimler, S. C. (2022, September, 21-23). Enhancing Social Media Literacy Skills in Students: Empirically Investigating Virtual Learning Companions [Conference presentation]. 4th International Conference on Higher Education Learning Methodologies and Technologies Online, Palermo, Italy

In a digitally led society, where social media consumption is constantly increasing, users are confronted not only with positive, but also with toxic content and dynamics like cyberbullying, racism, hate speech, or fake news. Oftentimes, users are not aware of the severity (e.g., racist or homophobic comments) or level of manipulation (e.g., ideal body image which can be linked to eating disorders, feeding disorders, vigo-rexia) of specific postings, or do not know how to protect themselves against cyberbullying, discrimination or hate speech. On occasions, victims of cyber aggression even become perpetrators themselves, as they do not find another way out. This is highly problematic as it can initiate a severe circle expanding the dissemination of toxic behavior and content. This emphasizes the need to design and develop social media literacy interventions to raise awareness of the dangers and threats that are hidden within. However, most current approaches are limited in enabling deep reflection as they provide detached learning situations, or tend to be centered on more traditional methods. The project COURAGE introduces a new perspective on social media literacy by proposing the integration of educational opportunities within a simulated social media platform (SMP) addressed to adolescents. To successfully achieve this, we propose the use of virtual learning companions (VLC) that can provide opportunities for users to learn (e.g., empathy training or information transfer) whilst they naturally explore social media.


Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., Hoppe, H. U. (2021). A virtual sandbox approach to studying the effect of augmented communication on human-robot collaboration. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.728961

Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) has the potential for a paradigm shift in industrial production by complementing the strengths of industrial robots with human staff. However, exploring these scenarios in physical experimental settings is costly and difficult, eg, due to safety considerations. We present a virtual reality application that allows the exploration of HRC work arrangements with autonomous robots and their effect on human behavior. Prior experimental studies conducted using this application demonstrated the benefits of augmenting an autonomous robot arm with communication channels on subjective aspects such as perceived stress. Motivated by current safety regulations that hinder HRC to expand its full potential, we explored the effects of the augmented communication on objective measures (collision rate and produced goods) within a virtual sandbox application. Explored through a safe and replicable setup, the goal was to determine whether communication channels that provide guidance and explanation on the robot can help mitigate safety hazards without interfering with the production effectiveness of both parties. This is based on the theoretical foundation that communication channels enable the robot to explain its action, helps the human collaboration partner to comprehend the current state of the shared task better, and react accordingly. Focused on the optimization of production output, reduced collision rate, and increased perception of safety, a between-subjects experimental study with two conditions (augmented communication vs non-augmented) was conducted.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., Keßler, D., Thomas, J.,  Helgert, A., Rehm, M., Graf, E., Wientzek, S. & Budur, B. (2021): "Walking on the Bright Sight: Evaluating a Photovoltaics Virtual Reality Education Application". IEEE, AIVR Conference.

Virtual reality (VR) has demonstrated its potential in educational settings, allowing students to explore complex and otherwise inaccessible learning scenarios and material. We present a virtual reality learning application based on a real photovoltaics (PV)-array as an interdisciplinary work-in-progress approach towards an engaging VR-application with long-lasting learning effects. Students can inspect, alter and connect individual PV-modules and engage with the learning material in a game-based way. The application was developed by an interdisciplinary team in a participatory approach. To test, expand and improve the VR-application in future iterations, it was used in a course with students, who evaluated their experience via a pre-/post-online questionnaire and additional semi-structured individual interviews (N=7). The results show positive (self-reported) effects on different aspects covered in the evaluation (e.g. usability, learning motivation) regarding PV-arrays. Students recognized the benefit over traditional learning material and praised the strong resemblance of the VR-environment with the real counterpart.

Arntz, A., DiDia, A., Riebner, T. & Eimler, S. C. (2021): "Machine Learning Concepts for Dual-Arm Robots within Virtual Reality". IEEE, AIVR Conference.

The collaboration between humans and artificial intelligence (AI) driven robots lay the foundations for new approaches in industrial production. However, intensive research is required to develop machine learning behavior that is not only able to execute shared tasks but also acts following the expectations of the human partner. Rigid setups and restrictive safety measures deny the acquisition of adequate training samples to build general-purpose machine learning solutions for evaluation within experimental studies. Based on established research that trains AI systems within simulated environments, we present a machine learning implementation that enables the training of a dual-arm robot within a virtual reality (VR) application. Building upon preceding research, an activity diagram for a shared task for the machine learning model to learn, was conceptualized. A first approach, using vector distances, led to flawed results, whereas a revised solution based on collision boxes resulted in a stable outcome. While the implementation of the machine learning model is fixed on the activity diagram of the shared task, the presented approach is expandable as a universal platform for evaluating Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) scenarios in VR. Future iterations of this VR sandbox application can be used to explore optimal workplace arrangements and procedures with autonomous industrial robots in a wide range of possible scenarios.

Arntz, A., Kessler, D. & Eimler, S. C. (2021). EnLighten: A Photovoltaics Learning Environment in Virtual Reality. In 2021 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) (pp. 221-223). IEEE.

Past examples have illustrated the potential for virtual reality (VR) in educational settings, allowing students the exploration of complex and otherwise hardly accessible learning objects and content. We introduce a VR-photovoltaics learning application. Replicated from a real photovoltaics(PV)-array, we designed a VR-application where students can inspect PV-modules and explore their distinct characteristics. By using current and historical data from the real PV-array through a network interface, combined with a dynamic weather system, a great versatility in scenarios to experiment and learn with can be created. In its modular conceptualization, the current version of the application offers flexible expandability for diverse learning scenarios with multiple data sources.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., Straßmann, C. & Hoppe, H. U. (2021, March). On the Influence of Autonomy and Transparency on Blame and Credit in Flawed Human-Robot Collaboration. In Companion of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 377-381).

The collaboration between humans and autonomous AI-driven robots in industrial contexts is a promising vision that will have an impact on the sociotechnical system. Taking research from the field of human teamwork as guiding principles as well as results from human robot collaboration studies this study addresses open questions regarding the design and impact of communicative transparency and behavioral autonomy in a human robot collaboration. In an experimental approach, we tested whether an AI-narrative and communication panels of a robot-arm trigger the attribution of more human like traits and expectations going along with a changed attribution of blame and failure in a flawed collaboration.

Detjen, H., Salini, M., Kronenberger, J., Geisler, S. & S. Schneegass (2021): Towards Transparent Behavior of Automated Vehicles: Design and Evaluation of HUD Concepts to Support System Predictability Through Motion Intent Communication. MobileHCI 2021.

In automated vehicles, it is essential to feedforward motion intentions to users so that they understand the vehicle’s actions. Otherwise, non-transparency limits situation awareness and leads to mistrust. In this work, we are communicating the vehicle’s actions to the user either by displaying icons (planar HUD) or through augmented reality (contact-analog HUD) to increase transparency. We developed both concepts in a user-centered design process. Further, we evaluated them in two subsequent user studies (N = 27). In the first study, we focused on UX and trust in higher automation levels (cf. SAE level 3-5). In the second study, we focused on safety and error prevention in lower automation levels (cf. SAE levels 1-2). Our results show that both visualizations increase UX and trust in an automated system. Nevertheless, the AR approach outperforms the icon-based approach by achieving higher user experience as well as faster and less error-prone take-overs of participants.

Detjen, H.,  Nurhas, I. & Geisler, S. (2021): Attitudes Towards Autonomous Public Transportation. AutoUI 2021. H. Detjen, S. Geisler, S. Schneegass. Driving as Side Task: Exploring Intuitive Input Modalities for Multitasking in Automated Vehicles. CHI EA '21: Extended Abstracts of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2021.

Public transportation will become highly automated in the future, and at some point, human drivers are no longer necessary. Today many people are skeptical about such scenarios of autonomous public transport (abbr.: APT). In this paper, we assess users’ subjective priority of different factors that lead to personal acceptance or rejection of APT using an adapted online version of the Q-Methodology with 44 participants. We found four prototypical attitudes to which subgroups of participants relate: 1) technical enthusiasts, 2) social skeptics, 3) service-oriented non-enthusiasts, and 4) technology-oriented non-enthusiasts. We provide an unconventional perspective on APT acceptance that helps practitioners prioritize design requirements and communicate, targeting users’ specific attitudes.

Detjen, H., Degenhart, R.N., Schneegass & S. Geisler. Supporting User Onboarding in Automated Vehicles through Multimodal Augmented Reality Tutorials. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 5 (5), 22, 2021.

Misconceptions of vehicle automation functionalities lead to either non-use or dangerous misuse of assistant systems, harming the users’ experience by reducing potential comfort or compromise safety. Thus, users must understand how and when to use an assistant system. In a preliminary online survey, we examined the use, trust, and the perceived understanding of modern vehicle assistant systems. Despite remaining incomprehensibility (36–64%), experienced misunderstandings (up to 9%), and the need for training (around 30%), users reported high trust in the systems. In the following study with first-time users, we examine the effect of different User Onboarding approaches for an automated parking assistant system in a Tesla and compare the traditional text-based manual with a multimodal augmented reality (AR) smartphone application in means of user acceptance, UX, trust, understanding, and task performance. While the User Onboarding experience for both approaches shows high pragmatic quality, the hedonic quality was perceived significantly higher in AR. For the automated parking process, reported hedonic and pragmatic user experience, trust, automation understanding, and acceptance do not differ, yet the observed task performance was higher in the AR condition. Overall, AR might help motivate proper User Onboarding and better communicate how to operate the system for inexperienced users.

Detjen, H., Faltaous, S.,  Pfleging, B., Geisler, S. & Schneegass, S. (2021): How to Increase Automated Vehicles’ Acceptance through In-Vehicle Interaction Design: A Review. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 37 (4), 308-330, 2021.

Automated vehicles (AVs) are on the edge of being available on the mass market. Research often focuses on technical aspects of automation, such as computer vision, sensing, or artificial intelligence. Nevertheless, researchers also identified several challenges from a human perspective that need to be considered for a successful introduction of these technologies. In this paper, we first analyze human needs and system acceptance in the context of AVs. Then, based on a literature review, we provide a summary of current research on in-car driver-vehicle interaction and related human factor issues. This work helps researchers, designers, and practitioners to get an overview of the current state of the art.

Geisler, S. (2021): Von Fahrinformation über Fahrassistenz zum autonomen Fahren. Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion, 383-403, Springer-Vieweg.

&Zur sicheren Steuerung eines Fahrzeugs im Straßenverkehr sind eine ganze Reihe von An- zeigen notwendig, beispielsweise die eigene Geschwindigkeit. Viele Funktionen zur Fahr- assistenz benötigen Eingaben der fahrenden Person. Wie auch in den vergangenen Jahren die Funktionsvielfalt gewachsen ist, so ist auch die Anzahl von Anzeige- und Bedienele- menten gestiegen. Im vorangegangenen Kapitel wurde bereits die Begrenztheit der menschlichen Leistungsfähigkeit bei der gleichzeitigen Aufnahme und Interpretation von Informationen dargelegt. Die Herausforderung an das HMI im Fahrzeug ist durch die ge- wachsene Anzahl und auch Komplexität der Systeme enorm gestiegen. In diesem Kapitel sollen zu ausgewählten Funktionen die Anzeige und Bedienkonzepte vorgestellt werden, von einfachen Anzeigen bis zu Strategien für das autonom fahrende Fahrzeug. Dabei wird ein besonderes Augenmerk auf die sicherheitsrelevanten Aspekte gelegt.

Geisler, S. (2021): Menschliche Aspekte bei der Entwicklung von Fahrassistenzsystemen. Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion, 363-382, Springer-Vieweg.

Kaum ein sicherheitskritisches System hat eine so große Verbreitung bei Privatpersonen gefunden wie das Automobil. Seit seiner Erfindung hat es eine rasante Weiterentwicklung erfahren, von einer rein mechanischen Maschine zu einem System, bei dem heute die meisten Innovationen auf elektronischen Komponenten basieren.

Helgert, A., Eimler, S.C. & Arntz, A. (2021): "Learning About Catcalling: An Interactive Virtual Gallery Concept Raising Awareness for Street Harassment". IEEE, AIVR Conference.

In this paper, we describe a virtual reality (VR) application that educates and sensitizes visitors for street harassment, a globally prevalent form of violence predominantly targeted against women. The phenomenon, also known as Catcalling, recently gained renewed attention in public discussions initiated by social media activists. Combining VR with interactive instruction settings known from museums might be a promising way to effectively reach victims, bystanders, and aggressors alike and obtain a lasting attitude and behavior change. We present a virtual gallery where visitors can explore a variety of curated interactive multimedia material intended to inform, raise awareness, inspire empathy, perspective-taking, and behavioral change. With interactions such as a self-assessment test, as well as opportunities for visitors to leave feedback and thoughts in the gallery, this virtual world can be used as a sensitization tool. Based on a first evaluation with experts (N=16) , the original proof-of-concept prototype was extended and evaluated by a larger group including students (N=50)

Helgert, A. , Eimler,S. C. & A. Arntz (2021):"Stop Catcalling - A Virtual Environment Educating Against Street Harassment," 2021 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2021, pp. 419-421, doi: 10.1109/ICALT52272.2021.00133

Street harassment, especially against women, is a prevalent phenomenon also known as catcalling. Numerous campaigns have tried to raise awareness for practices like publicly commenting on women's bodies, whistling or unwanted sexual advances. Recently, activists against catcalling have been especially present on Social Media, outreaching to large international audiences. However, effective ways still have to be found to stimulate an intense reflexion and raise empathy, especially among aggressors and bystanders. Using a virtual reality gallery, including diverse multimedia material and feedback options to stimulate a discussion among visitors, we create an immersive, educating and interactive experience. Rather than moralizing, the gallery promotes a self-paced exploration of the material, combines personal stories with instructive facts to sensitize to street harassment. 

Hellwig, L., Pawlowski, J. M., & Schäfer, M. (2021). A Business Competency Framework within Digital Transformation-an Empirical Study. In European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2021. https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2021_rp/39

The goal of the present research is to develop a comprehensive Digital Transformation Competency Framework that considers the requirements of different hierarchical levels within companies in the Digital Transformation (DT). Therefore, it is necessary to identify and structure cognitive aspects as well as the affective competencies required for a successful DT. Special attention was paid to the empirical approach and transferability into practice. A comprehensive literature review, which included sources from both science and industry, identified a total of 32 competencies in six categories. A survey of n=46 experts from science and industry confirmed the relevance of the competencies and helped to define the competencies more precisely. Finally, the applicability of the developed framework was tested and validated in an application case. Thus, the framework provides a valid basis for further research and represents a valuable contribution to the Information System discipline on several levels. In addition to a precise definition of the individual validated competencies, the framework enables the development of requirement profiles in different contexts within the digital transformation.

Hellwig, L., Pawlowski, J., & Schäfer, M. (2021). How digitalised innovation environments impact companies' innovation capability-a review and research agenda. https://aisel.aisnet.org/ukais2021/8

The aim of this paper is to structure the diverse investigations into various Digitalized Innovation Environments (DIE) such as FabLabs, Makerspaces, and Innovation Laboratories and to identify the resulting potential for companies. In private and academic contexts, DIEs are already established as environments for fostering innovation and knowledge transfer. Taking into account a wide range of disciplines and perspectives, a total of four functions were identified that DIEs can potentially assume in companies. Based on this, both direct and indirect impacts could be derived and resulting research gaps were identified. These blind spots are supplemented by research questions on the structural integration of DIEs in companies. Thus, the paper provides an overview of the current state of research and reveals relevant research gaps, which contribute to a future structured investigation of the research subject DIE.

Krämer, N.C., Neubaum, G., Winter, S., Schaewitz, L., Eimler, S. & Mary Beth Oliver (2021). I feel what they say: the effect of social media comments on viewers’ affective reactions toward elevating online videos. Media Psychology, 24 (3), 332-358.

The present study examined whether peer comments on video-sharing platforms can influence the emotional reactions toward entertaining videos. This question is especially relevant with regard to meaningful videos known to increase prosocial motivation and reduce stereotypes. In a 3x3x2 between-subjects online experiment (N = 732), we varied the type of video (unity of humankind, portrayals of human kindness, funny videos) and valence (positive, neutral, negative) as well as internationality (English vs international) of peer reactions. Results demonstrate that peer comments indeed alter the emotional effects of the video clip, with negative comments leading to a reduced sense of elevation. The extent to which viewers socially identified with commenters explained this pattern and intensified associated effects such as an increased universal orientation.

Lakbir, M., Akyildiz, S., Gupta, P., Afola, M., & Sieger, L. N. (2021). An interface for increasing users’ understanding of smart home systems using gamification. Mensch und Computer 2021 Workshopband.

Smart home systems are becoming more and more popular as the technologies become more sophisticated and efficient. Despite this interest and popularity, the use and acceptance of smart home systems are still low. This is due to factors such as lack of under- standing of how smart home systems work, as well as concerns about privacy and data protection. We created a concept of a smart home interface that is supposed to increase understanding of the functioning and data management of the system through gamifi- cation. Interviews were conducted with possible users, who were questioned about their experiences with and opinions about certain aspects of smart home systems, to further investigate the factors that impact acceptance. After that, the subjects were presented our concept, which is supposed to solve these barriers. Results show that most participants worry about a lack of transparency of data usage in a smart home but have mostly positive feelings about our concept. We conclude that our gamification approach has the potential to make people more aware of how personal data works and how it is handled

Lingnau A., Strassmann C., Helgert A., Benjes M. and Neumann A. (2021), "Learnflix: A Tool for Collaborative Synchronous Video Based Online Learning," 2021 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2021, pp. 119-121, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT52272.2021.00043.

The increase of social isolation amongst students due to remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic leads to decreased learning efficiency as well as extenuated satisfaction with students' learning experiences. In this paper we present an approach to tackle these problems by providing a tool that helps students organise collaborative learning with videos.

Nurhas, Irawan, Henri Pirkkalainen, Stefan Geisler, and Jan Pawlowski. (2021), "Examining Competing Entrepreneurial Concerns in a Social Question and Answer (SQA) Platform." In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management-Volume 3: KMIS, vol. 2021, (pp. 145-152). SCITEPRESS. https://doi.org/10.5220/0010661000003064

This study aims to determine the competing concerns of people interested in startup development and entrepreneurship by using topic modeling and sentiment analysis on a social question-and-answer (SQA) website. Understanding the underlying concerns of startup entrepreneurs is critical to society and economic growth. Therefore, greater scientific support for entrepreneurship remains necessary, including data mining from virtual social communities. In this study, an SQA platform was used to identify the sentiment of thirty concerns of people interested in startup entrepreneurship. Based on topic modeling and sentiment analysis of 18819 inquiries in various forums on an SQA, we identified additional questions about founder figures, keys to success, and the location of a startup. In addition, we found that general questions were rated more positively, especially when it came to pitching, finding good sources, disruptive innovation, idea generation, and marketing advice. On average, the identified concerns were considered 48.9 percent positive, 41 percent neutral, and 10.1 percent negative. This research establishes a critical foundation for future research and development of digital startups by outlining a variety of different concerns associated with startup development in the digital age.

Nurhas, Irawan, Stefan Geisler, and Jan Pawlowski. (2021), "Developing a Competency Framework for Intergenerational Startup Innovation in a Digital Collaboration Setting." In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, vol. 2021, (pp. 110-118). SCITEPRESS. https://doi.org/10.5220/0010652100003064

This study proposes a framework for the collaborative development of global start-up innovators in a multigenerational digital environment. Intergenerational collaboration has been identified as a strategy to support entrepreneurs during their formative years. However, integrating and fostering intergenerational collaboration remains elusive. Therefore, this study aims to identify competencies for successful global start- ups through intergenerational knowledge transfer. We used a systematic literature review to identify a competency set consisting of growth virtues, effectual creativity, technical domain, responsive teamwork, values-based organization, sustainable networking, cultural awareness, and facilitating intergenerational safety. The competency framework serves as a foundation for knowledge management research on the global innovation readiness of people to collaborate across generations in the digital age.

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., Ojala, A. and Pawlowski, J.M. (2021). "Barriers and wellbeing-oriented enablers of intergenerational innovation in the digital age." Universal Access in the Information Society. (pp. 1-17). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-021-00844-w

So far, researchers have used a wellbeing-centered approach to catalyze successful intergenerational collaboration (IGC) in innovative activities. However, due to the subject’s multidisciplinary nature, there is still a dearth of comprehensive research devoted to constructing the IGC system. Thus, the purpose of this study is to fill a research void by providing a conceptual framework for information technology (IT) system designers to use as a jumping-off point for designing an IGC system with a wellbeing-oriented design. A systematic literature study was conducted to identify relevant terms and develop a conceptual framework based on a review of 75 selected scientific papers. The result consists of prominent thematic linkages and a conceptual framework related to design technology for IGC systems. The conceptual framework provides a comprehensive overview of IGC systems in the innovation process by identifying five barrier dimensions and using six wellbeing determinants as IGC catalysts. Moreover, this study discusses future directions for research on IGC systems. This study offers a novel contribution by shifting the technology design process from an age-based design approach to wellbeing-driven IGC systems. Additional avenues for investigation were revealed through the analysis of the study’s findings.

Nurhas, Irawan, Bayu R. Aditya, Deden W. Jacob, and Jan M. Pawlowski. (2021),"Understanding the challenges of rapid digital transformation: the case of COVID-19 pandemic in higher education." Behaviour & Information Technology. (pp. 1-17). https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2021.1962977

Rapid digital transformation is taking place due to the COVID-19 pandemic, forcing organisations and higher educational institutions to change their working and learning culture. This study explores the challenges of rapid digital transformation arising during the pandemic in the higher education context. This research used the Q-methodology to understand the nine challenges that higher education encountered, perceived differently as four main patterns: (1) Digital-nomad enterprise; (2) Corporate-collectivism; (3) Well-being-oriented; and (4) Pluralistic. This study broadens the current understanding of digital transformation, especially in higher education. The nine challenges and four patterns of transformation actors serve as a starting point for organisations in supporting technological choice and strategic interventions, based on individual, group, and organisational behavioural levels. Moreover, five propositions, based on the competing concerns of these challenges, establish a framework for comprehending the ecosystem that enables rapid digital transformation. Strategies, prerequisites, and key factors during the (digital) technology development process benefit the cyber-society ecosystem. As a practical contribution, Q-methodology was used to investigate perspectives on digitalisation challenges during the pandemic.

Sieger, L. N., & Detjen, H. (2021). Exploring Users’ Perceived Control Over Technology. In Mensch und Computer 2021 (pp. 344-348).

Intelligent systems become more and more a part of our everyday lives and typically act autonomously. Design guidelines and constructs related to the control of traditional systems often do not apply to them. Still, perceived control over these systems is important to users and affect acceptance and intention to use them. This paper presents an explorative online study. Participants named systems over which they sense much or less control and described features and properties that lead to that perception or that affect their desire for control. We found that (1) perceived control is strongly influenced by not directly control-related design features such as effective or efficient use, (2) poor comprehensibility and malfunctioning are highly affecting users control feeling, (3) users value customizability and the possibility for personalization of systems, (4) people are highly aware of privacy control issues of modern online connected technology, and (5) smart systems face the same control-related challenges as non-smart systems, but suffer from still being new to the users. Our findings help to understand the complex phenomena of perceived control over system with different levels of intelligence and autonomy from the users’ perspective and give suggestions for the design of future systems.

Strassmann, C., Arntz, A. & Eimler, S.C. (2021). Inspiring Movement — Physical Activity in a Virtual Sea as a Driver for Ecological Awareness. International Journal of Semantic Computing, Vol. 15, No. 04, pp. 539-559. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1793351X21400158

As environmental pollution continues to expand, new ways for raising awareness for the consequences need to be explored. Virtual reality has emerged as an effective tool for behavioral change. This paper investigates if virtual reality applications controlled through physical activity can support an even stronger effect, because they enhance attention and recall performance by stimulating working memory through motor functions. This was tested in an experimental study (N=47) using a virtual reality head-mounted display in combination with the ICAROS fitness device enabling participants to explore either a plastic-polluted or a non-polluted sea. Results indicated that using a regular controller elicits more presence and a more intense Flow experience than the ICAROS condition, which people controlled via their physical activity. Moreover, the plastic-polluted stimulus was more effective in inducing people’s stated tendency to change their attitude than a non-polluted sea.


Arntz, A. and Eimler, S. C. (2020). Experiencing AI in VR: A qualitative Study on Designing a Human-Machine Collaboration Scenario. In HCI International 2020 – Late Breaking Posters, eds. C. Stephanidis, M. Antona, and S. Ntoa (Cham: Springer International Publishing), vol. 1293 of Communications in Computer and Information Science. pp. 299–307. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60700-5 38

This paper describes the setup and results of a qualitative interview study, in which participants were given the opportunity to interact with an AI-based representation of a robotic-arm in a virtual reality environment. Nine participants were asked to to jointly assemble a product with their robotic partner. The different aspects of their experiences, expectations and preferences towards the interaction with the AI-based industrial collaboration partner were assessed. Results of this study help to inform the design of future studies exploring working arrangements and communication between individuals and robots in collaborating together.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., and Hoppe, H. U. (2020).  Augmenting the Human-Robot Communication Channel in Shared Task Environments. In Collaboration Technologies and Social Computing, eds. A. Nolte, C. Alvarez, R. Hishiyama, I.-A. Chounta, M. J. Rodrıguez-Triana, and T. Inoue (Cham: Springer  International Publishing), vol. 12324 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 20–34. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58157-2

Adaptive robots that collaborate with humans in shared task environments are expected to enhance production efficiency and flexibility in a near future. In this context, the question of acceptance of such a collaboration by human workers is essential for a successful implementation. Augmenting the robot-to-human communication channel with situation-specific and explanatory information might increase the workers' willingness to collaborate with artificial counterparts, as a robot that provides guidance and explanation might be perceived as more cooperative in a social sense. However, the effects of using different augmentation strategies and parameters have not yet been sufficiently explored. This paper examines the usage of augmenting industrial robots involved in shared task environments by conducting an evaluation in a virtual reality (VR) setting. The results provide a first step towards an iterative design process aiming to facilitate and enhance the collaboration between human's and robot's in industrial contexts.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., and Hoppe, H. U. (2020).  “The Robot-Arm Talks Back to me” -Human Perception of Augmented Human-Robot Collaboration in Virtual Reality.  In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (IEEE),307–312.  http://doi.org/10.1109/AIVR50618.2020.00062

The usage of AI enhanced robots in shared task environments is likely to become more and more common with the increase of digitalization in different industrial sectors. To take up this new challenge, research on the design of Human-Robot-Collaboration (HRC) involving AI-based systems has yet to establish common targets and guidelines. This paper presents results from an explorative qualitative study. Participants (\textit{N} = 80) were either exposed to a virtual representation of an industrial robot-arm equipped with several augmentation channels for communication with the human operator (lights, textual statements about intentions, etc.) or one with no communicative functions at all. Across all conditions, participants recognized the benefit of collaborating with robots in industrial scenarios regarding work efficiency and alleviation of working conditions. However, a communication channel from the robot to the human is crucial for achieving these benefits. Participants interacting with the non-communicative robot expressed dissatisfaction about the workflow. In both conditions we found remarks about the insufficient speed of the robot-arm for an efficient collaborative process. Our results indicate a wider spectrum of questions to be further explored in the design of collaborative experiences with intelligent technological counterparts considering efficiency, safety, economic success and well-being.

Arntz, A., D. Kessler, N. Borgert, N. Zengeler, M. Jansen, U. Handmann, S.C. Eimler. Navigating a Heavy Industry Environment Using Augmented Reality - A Comparison of Two Indoor Navigation Designs. In: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 3-18, July 19th-24th, 2020.

The fourth industrial revolution seeks to enhance and optimize industrial processes through digital systems. However, such systems need to meet special criteria for usability and task support, ensuring users’ acceptance and safety. This paper presents an approach to support employees in heavy industries with augmented reality based indoor navigation and instruction systems. An experimental study examined two different user interface concepts (navigation path vs. navigation arrow) for augmented reality head-mounted-displays. In order to validate a prototypical augmented reality application that can be deployed in such production processes, a simulated industrial environment was created. Participants walked through the scenario and were instructed to work on representative tasks, while the wearable device offered assistance and guidance. Users’ perception of the system and task performance were assessed. Results indicate a superior performance of the navigation path design, as it granted participants significantly higher perceived support in the simulated working tasks. Nevertheless, the covered distance by the participants was significantly shorter in navigation arrow condition compared to the navigation path condition. Considering that the navigation path design resulted in a higher perceived Support, renders this design approach more suitable for assisting personnel working at industrial workplaces

Arntz, A., S.C. Eimler, D. Keßler, A. Nabokova, S. Schädlich. Thermodynamics Reloaded: Experiencing Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning in AR. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (pp. 319-322). IEEE.

Augmented Reality (AR) has great potential for new didactic concepts in teaching. Environments, information and objects can be comprehensively and dynamically represented, supporting self-paced and holistic learning. This paper presents an implementation of a multimodal AR-application for the purpose of teaching complex features and mechanics of a "Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning System" in a situated and engaging way. The application was designed and implemented by an interdisciplinary team and evaluated in a mixed-methods approach. Results show a high usability and acceptance of the application. Students recognized the benefit of the application regarding their motivation and learning gains and made suggestions for further improvements.

Deiters, W., Geisler, S., Hörner, F., & Knaup, A. K. (Eds.). (2020). Die Kommunikation und ihre Technologien: Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven auf Digitalisierung (Vol. 66). transcript Verlag.


Detjen, H., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020). Implicit Cooperation: Emotion Detection for Validation and Adaptation of Automated Vehicles' Driving Behavior. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.13044.

Human emotion detection in automated vehicles helps to improve comfort and safety. Research in the automotive domain focuses a lot on sensing drivers' drowsiness and aggression. We present a new form of implicit driver-vehicle cooperation, where emotion detection is integrated into an automated vehicle's decision-making process. Constant evaluation of the driver's reaction to vehicle behavior allows us to revise decisions and helps to increase the safety of future automated vehicles.

Detjen, H., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020). “Help, Accident Ahead!” Using Mixed Reality Environments in Automated Vehicles to Support Occupants After Passive Accident Experiences. In 12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (pp. 58-61). https://doi.org/10.1145/3409251.3411723

Currently, car assistant systems mainly try to prevent accidents. Increasing built-in car technology also extends the potential applications in vehicles. Future cars might have virtual windshields that augment the traffic or individual virtual assistants interacting with the user. In this paper, we explore the potential of an assistant system that helps the car’s occupants to calm down and reduce stress when they experience an accident in front of them. We present requirements from a discussion (N = 11) and derive a system design from them. Further, we test the system design in a video-based simulator study (N = 43). Our results indicate that an accident support system increases perceived control and trust and helps to calm down the user.

Detjen, H., Faltaous, S., Pfleging, B., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020). How to Increase Automated Vehicles’ Acceptance through In-Vehicle Interaction Design: A Review. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2020.1860517

Automated vehicles (AVs) are on the edge of being available on the mass market. Research often focuses on technical aspects of automation, such as computer vision, sensing, or artificial intelligence. Nevertheless, researchers also identified several challenges from a human perspective that need to be considered for a successful introduction of these technologies. In this paper, we first analyze human needs and system acceptance in the context of AVs. Then, based on a literature review, we provide a summary of current research on in-car driver-vehicle interaction and related human factor issues. This work helps researchers, designers, and practitioners to get an overview of the current state of the art.

Detjen, H., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020, October). Maneuver-based Control Interventions During Automated Driving: Comparing Touch, Voice, and Mid-Air Gestures as Input Modalities. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 3268-3274). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/SMC42975.2020.9283431

Self-driving cars will relief the human from the driving task. Nevertheless, the human might want to intervene in the driving process and thus needs the possibility to control the car. Switching back to fully manual controls is uncomfortable once being passive and engaging in non-driving-related activities. A more comfortable way is controlling the car with elemental maneuvers (e.g., "turn left" or "stop"). Whereas touch interaction concepts exist, contactless interaction through voice and mid-air gestures has not yet been explored for maneuver-based car control. In this paper, we, therefore, compare the general eligibility of voice and mid-air gesture with touch interaction as the primary maneuver selection mechanism in a driving simulator study. Our results show high usability for all modalities. Contactless interaction leads to a more positive emotional perception of the interaction, yet mid-air gestures lead to higher task load. Overall, voice and touch control are preferred over mid-air gestures by most users.

Keßler, D., A. Arntz, J. Friedhoff, S.C. Eimler. Mill Instructor: Teaching Industrial CNC Procedures Using Virtual Reality. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (pp. 231-234). IEEE.

Virtual Reality (VR) holds great potential for new didactic concepts in teaching, since environments, information and objects can be represented and manipulated digitally. Especially when it comes to training environments that include potentially dangerous processes, are expensive or bring the risk of damage to important tools, VR offers an alternative way of approaching a new subject. This paper presents a VR-application used in the studies of mechanical engineering. It includes the virtual representation of a Hermle CNC C42U milling machine, which serves to acquire basic knowledge in controlling such a system, avoiding safety risks and logistical constraints. Results from an evaluation with the target group show a good usability and (perceived) impact on the user's learning gain.

Hoel, T., Chen, W., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2020). Making context the central concept in privacy engineering. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning15https://rptel.apsce.net/index.php/RPTEL/article/view/2020-15021

There is a gap between people’s online sharing of personal data and their concerns about privacy. Till now, this gap is addressed by attempting to match individual privacy preferences with service providers’ options for data handling. This approach has ignored the role different contexts play in data sharing. This paper aims at giving privacy engineering a new direction putting context centre stage and exploiting the affordances of machine learning in handling contexts and negotiating data sharing policies. This research is explorative and conceptual, representing the first development cycle of a design science research project in privacy engineering. The paper offers a concise understanding of data privacy as a foundation for design extending the seminal contextual integrity theory of Helen Nissenbaum. This theory started out as a normative theory describing the moral appropriateness of data transfers. In our work, the contextual integrity model is extended to a socio-technical theory that could have practical impact in the era of artificial intelligence. New conceptual constructs such as ‘context trigger’, ‘data sharing policy’ and ‘data sharing smart contract’ are defined, and their application is discussed from an organisational and technical level. The constructs and design are validated through expert interviews; contributions to design science research are discussed, and the paper concludes with presenting a framework for further privacy engineering development cycles.

Nuñez, T.R., T. Radtke, S.C. Eimler. A third-person perspective on Phubbing: Observing smartphone-induced social exclusion generates negative affect, stress, and derogatory attitudes. In: Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2020.

Phubbing (phone-snubbing) has become a pervasive public communication phenomenon which adversely affects its targets and sources. Yet, research on phubbing is not built on a consistent theoretical basis and examinations on its effects on the public are still missing. This study aimed at addressing these research gaps by conceptualizing the behavior as an act of smartphone-induced social exclusion and investigating whether phubbing impacts its observers. In a between-subject experiment, N = 160 participants observed photos of dyadic interpersonal interactions in different everyday contexts which depicted one-sided, reciprocal, or no phubbing. Results revealed that observers of phubbing experienced negative affect and stress. Observers also derogated individuals who used their smartphones in social interactions regarding their warmth and competence; these effects were mediated by observers’ perceived relationship quality between the observed persons. Affective and cognitive outcomes emerged independently of observers’ gender. As these findings are in line with the effects and processes outlined in the temporal need-threat model of ostracism (i.e., social exclusion), they support the assumptions that phubbing is a form of smartphone-induced social exclusion and that its negative effects go beyond social interactions in which the behavior occurs. With this, the present study expands research regarding a modern communication phenomenon by strengthening its theoretical foundation and arriving at important theoretical and practical implications concerning targets, sources, and observers of phubbing.

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., Ojala, A., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2020). Towards a Wellbeing-driven System Design for Intergenerational Collaborative Innovation: A Literature Review. In Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. University of Hawai'i at Manoa. DOI: doi.org/10.24251/HICSS.2020.062

Researchers have previously utilized the advantages of a design driven by well-being and intergenerational collaboration (IGC) for successful innovation. Unfortunately, scant information exists regarding barrier dimensions and correlated design solutions in the information systems (IS) domain, which can serve as a starting point for a design oriented toward well-being in an IGC system. Therefore, in this study, we applied the positive computing approach to guide our analysis in a systematic literature review and developed a framework oriented toward well-being for a system with a multi-generational team. Our study contributes to the IS community by providing five dimensions of barriers to IGC and the corresponding well-being determinants for positive system design. In addition, we propose further research directions to close the research gap based on the review outcomes.

Nurhas, I., Boutouil, M., Geisler, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2020). Design Principles of Collaborative Learning Space Connecting Teachers and Refugee Children: A Design Science Research Study. In EDULEARN Proceedings. IATED Academy. Doi: dx.doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2020.1763

Learning the German language is one of the most critical challenges for refugee children in Germany. It is a prerequisite to allow communication and integration into the educational system. To solve the underlying problem, we conceptualized a set of principles for the design of language learning systems to support collaboration between teachers and refugee children, using a Design Science Research approach. The proposed design principles offer functional and non-functional requirements of systems, including the integration of open educational resources, different media types to develop visual and audio narratives that can be linked to the cultural and social background. This study also illustrates the use of the proposed design principles by providing a working prototype of a learning system. In this, refugee children can learn the language collaboratively and with freely accessible learning resources. Furthermore, we discuss the proposed design principles with various sociotechnical aspects of the well-being determinants to promote a positive system design for different cultural and generational settings. Overall, despite some limitations, the implemented design principles can optimize the potential of open educational resources for the research context and derive further recommendations for further research.

Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M., C. Straßmann, N.C. Krämer. Language Learning with Artificial Entities: Effects of an Artificial Tutor´s Embodiment and Behaviour on Users' Alignment and Evaluation. In: International Conference on Social Robotics, November 14th-18th, 2020.

Based on the assumption that humans align linguistically to their interlocutor, the present research investigates if linguistic alignment towards an artificial tutor can enhance language skills and which factors might drive this effect. A 2 2 between-subjects design study examined the effect of an artificial tutor’s embodiment (robot vs. virtual agent) and behavior (meaningful nonverbal behavior vs. idle behavior) on linguistic alignment, learning outcome and interaction perception. While embodiment and nonverbal behavior affects the perception of the tutor and the interaction with it, no effect on users’ linguistic alignment was found nor an effect on users learning outcomes.

Straßmann, C., A. Arntz, S.C. Eimler. Under The (Plastic) Sea - Sensitizing People Toward Ecological Behaviour Using Virtual Reality Controlled by Users´ Physical Activity. In: 3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality, IEEE Computer Society Press, December 2020.

As environmental pollution continues to expand, new ways for raising awareness for the consequences need to be explored. Virtual reality has emerged as an effective tool for behavioral change. This paper investigates if virtual reality applications controlled through physical activity can support an even stronger effect, because it enhances the attention and recall performance by stimulating the working memory through motor functions. This was tested in an experimental study using a virtual reality head-mounted display in combination with the ICAROS fitness device enabling participants to explore either a plastic-polluted or non-polluted sea. Results indicated that using a regular controller elicits more presence and a more intense Flow experience than the ICAROS condition, which people controlled via their physical activity. Moreover, the plastic-polluted stimulus was more effective in inducing attitude change than a non-polluted sea.

Straßmann, C., N.C. Krämer, H. Buschmeier, S. Kopp. Appearance of a Health-Advisor. Age-related Differences in the Evaluation of a Virtual Assistant´s Appearance and Embodiment in a Health-Related Interaction. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2020.

Assistive technologies have become more important owing to the aging population, especially when they foster healthy behaviors. Because of their natural interface, virtual agents are promising assistants for people in need of support. To engage people during an interaction with these technologies, such assistants need to match the users´ needs and preferences, especially with regard to social outcomes. A 2×4 between-subjects design was used to investigate the age-related differences of appearance effects in a human-agent interaction. In this study, 46 seniors and 84 students interacted in a health scenario with a virtual agent, whose appearance varied (cartoon-stylized humanoid agent, cartoon-stylized machine-like agent, more realistic humanoid agent, and nonembodied agent [voice only]). After the interaction, participants reported on the evaluation of the agent, usage intention, perceived presence of the agent, bonding toward the agent, and overall evaluation of the interaction.

Sobieraj, S., S.C. Eimler. What Really Counts - An Exploratory Study on the Impact of Aggregated Data on Person Perception. In: Journal of Business and Media Psychology, pp. 1-13, 2020.

Straßmann, C., S.C. Eimler, A. Arntz, A. Grewe, C. Kowalczyk, S. Sommer. Receiving Robot’s Advice: Does it Matter When and for What? In: International Conference on Social Robotics, November14th-18th, 2020

Two experimental online studies investigate the persuasive effect of robot’s advice on human’s moral decision-making. Using two different decision scenarios with varying complexity, the effect of the point of time when a robot gives its advice was examined. Participants either received advice directly after the decision scenario or stated an initial opinion first, received advice and had the chance to adjust their decision afterwards. The analysis explored whether this affects the adaption to the robot’s advice and the decision certainty as well as the evaluation of the robot. The assumption that people rely more on the robot’s advice when they receive it directly and that those people have a reduced decision certainty was only found in the complex decision task condition.


Aditya, B. R., Nurhas, I., & Pawlowski, J. (2019). Towards Successful Implementation of a Virtual Classroom for Vocational Higher Education in Indonesia. In International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud (pp. 151-161). Springer, Cham.

The virtual classroom continues to grow, but it is becoming more and more the norm, and it is fundamentally different from the vocational students at the Indonesian university. With the promised benefits of the virtual classroom, many challenges and difficulties come in the implementation. Although there are already successful design principles for virtual classrooms that support organizations in overcoming the challenges, the approach to implementing the design principles of virtual classroom at the vocational higher education in Indonesia is still lacking. In this study, we aim to answer the research gap and used the design sciences research by interviewing the lecturers to design the solutions. The proposed design approaches were implemented in a course and evaluated with students from two different groups. Overall, the evaluation of the proposed approaches shows 1 significant results as an indicator of the benefits of the implementation of a virtual classroom for vocational students in Indonesia.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. & Handmann, U. (2019). Teaching Practical Tasks with Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality: An Experimental Study Comparing Learning Outcomes. Poster presented at General Online Research, 06.03.2019-08.03.2019, Cologne.


Bludau, S., Brandenberg, G., Erle, L., & Eimler, S.C. (2019). When Gender-Bias Meets Fake-News. Results of Two Experimental Online-Studies.  Poster präsentiert auf der General Online Research Conference, Mar 6th – Mar 8nd 2019, Cologne, Germany.


Borgert, N (2019). Share It: Shared Decision Making as a new Paradigm for Human-Computer Interaction (Master Thesis). Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum.

The research motivation and economic interest in a new paradigm for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) originate from the rise of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems as well as their potential implementation at knowledge workplaces. This increasing interplay of so called Intelligent Cognitive Assistants (ICAs) and employees demonstrates a need for a new principal approach that incorporates specific and promising steps to create an interaction design in decision-making contexts. Aiming to address the stated need, this master thesis tests Shared Decision Making (SDM) as a new paradigm for HCI. SDM stems from the medical field and outlines a three-step method to improve decision-making by sharing preferences and agreeing on a choice. In this thesis, two pre-studies are carried out to prepare the main experiment. The first pre-study inspects via an online questionnaire job characteristics of knowledge workers to ensure an environmental fit for ICAs and identify inconvenient, routine tasks. The second pre-study is a workshop using the SeeMe-method that analyzes an archetypical decision process at knowledge workplaces. This allows inferences for software engineering aspects by taking individual needs into account. The main study experimentally assesses three central outcome measures of SDM in a Wizard-of-Oz design. In comparison to the control group without support, results indicate for SDM support in HCI significantly increased deliberation and higher satisfaction with the. Also, the intention to adhere to the choice made was not significantly reduced in the experimental group. Thus, the work offers a variety of research contributions and practice implications. In conclusion, the findings strongly recommend the implementation of SDM in HCI at knowledge workplaces.

Borgert, N. (2019). Share It: A New Paradigm for Interactions with Intelligent Cognitive Assistants. Poster presented at the ACM-W womENcourage, Rome, Italy.

This research project tests Shared Decision Making (SDM) as a new work-psychological paradigm for interactions between humans and Intelligent Cognitive Assistants (ICAs) in decision-making processes. The increasing interplay between employees and AI demonstrates a need for a new principal approach that incorporates specific and promising steps to create a master design of Human-Computer Interactions (HCIs) in decision-making contexts.

Brandenberg, G. & Eimler, S. (2019). Positive Psychology Meets Computer Science. Poster accepted at Annual Conference Improving University Teaching, Jul 24th – Jul 26nd 2019, Mülheim, Germany.

Positive Psychology is a recent paradigm in the German psychology landscape focusing on people’s strengths and the role of belonging, optimism and well-being. In a rapidly changing digitalized world it is a promising approach for higher education (e.g. 21st century skills) and a relevant mind-set in facing future challenges for individuals, companies and society enhancing work performance, creativity and resilience. Despite a fundamental impact on individuals and society, computer science programs typically do not address such ideas. We present a concept and lessons learned from a Positive Psychology-enhanced course for students of a HCI-program mixing lectures and problem-based-projects with a company in order to promote concept-internationalization and self-efficacy.

Dümpel, V., Grewe, A., Kowalczyk, C. & Eimler, S. (2019). Closing the Gap Between Theory and Practice: Impressions from two Service Learning Projects Focusing on Elderly Migrants and Female Refugees. Poster accepted at Annual Conference Improving University Teaching, Jul 24th – Jul 26nd 2019, Mülheim, Germany.

Closing the gaps between theory and practice is demanding in University education settings. Mostly, societal challenges of specific groups are only theoretically addressed; e.g. direct contact between developers and users in user interface development is seldom. Time constraints and high coordination effort lets teachers refrain from getting involved in Service Learning. We present insights and results from two projects from a course on “Usability and User Experience in Intercultural Contexts” as a part of a HCI-study program. In course 1, students designed the prototype of a communication platform for a diverse group of female refugees in a participatory design process. In course 2, students involved Turkish migrants of different age groups in the design of a culturally sensitive health app helping migrants navigate the German health system.

Dümpel, V., Eimler, S.C., Brandenberg, G., Straßmann, C., Arntz, A., Keßler, D., & Zielinski, S. (2019). Comparing the Effects of Virtual Reality vs. Tablet-Based Diversity Interventions. Poster accepted at 11th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, Sep 04th – Sep 06th 2019, Chemnitz, Germany.


Dümpel, V., Eimler, S.C., Brandenberg, G., Straßmann, C., Arntz, A., Keßler, D. & Zielinski, S. (2019). DiVirtuality - Designing and Testing a Virtual Gallery for Stereotype Reduction and Diversity Awareness. Presentation accepted at Technology, Mind & Society APA Conference, Oct 3rd - Oct 5th 2019, Washington, United States of America.


Grewe, A. Kowalczyk, C., Straßmann, C. & Eimler, S.C. (2019). “Hm.. I am not sure.” How Do Robots’ Uncertainty Expression and Physical Presence Affect Humans’ Moral Decision Making and Perception? Poster accepted at 11th Conference of the Media Psychology Division , Sep 04th – Sep 06th 2019, Chemnitz, Germany.


Markewitz, K., Glinski, P., Herold, M., Strassmann, C.,  Arndt, A. & Eimler, S.C. (2019). Style for Success? A Study on the Impact of Avatars’ Styling on Perceived Competence and Warmth. Poster präsentiert auf der General Online Research Conference, Mar 6th – Mar 8nd 2019, Cologne, Germany.


Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., Pawlowski, J., . Why Should the Q-method Be Integrated Into the Design Science Research? A Systematic  Mapping Study, 10th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS), 11-14 August, 2019, Nokia, Finland

The Q-method has been utilized over time in various areas, including information systems. In this study, we used a systematic mapping to illustrate how the Q-method was applied within Information Systems (IS) community and proposing towards integration of Q-method into the Design Sciences Research (DSR) process as a tool for future research DSR-based IS studies. In this mapping study, we collected peer-reviewed journals from Basket-of-Eight journals and the digital library of the Association for Information Systems (AIS). Then we grouped the publications according to the process of DSR, and different variables for preparing Q-method from IS publications. We found that the potential of the Q-methodology can be used to support each main research stage of DSR processes and can serve as the useful tool to evaluate a system in the IS topic of system analysis and design.

Nurhas, I., Aditya, B.R., Geisler, S., Ojala, A., Pawlowski, J., . We Are “not” Too (Young/old) to Collaborate: Prominent Key Barriers to Intergenerational Innovation, Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), 8-12 July 2019, Xi’an, China

In this study, we analyzed the barriers to technology-supported intergenerational innovation to understand better how young and old can collaborate towards global innovations. Researchers in different disciplines have already identified various barriers to intergenerational collaboration. However, barriers are changing depending on the context of collaboration, and difficulties still exist to support intergenerational innovation in global settings. Therefore, we investigated the barriers that emerge when people work with someone decades older or younger. The results of our study have shown what barriers are influenced by age, what barriers exist only for senior and younger adults. The study theoretically contributes to deepening the Information Systems (IS) community's understanding of the barriers to intergenerational innovation that need to be considered when developing systems for global innovation.

Nurhas, I., Pawlowski, J., Geisler, S.,(2019). Towards humane digitization: a wellbeing-driven process of personas creation, in 5th International ACM In-Cooperation HCI and UX Conference in Indonesia (CHIuXiD), 1-9 April 2019, Bali, Indonesia.

Digital transformation is a process of digitizing the working and living environment in which people are at the center of digitization. In this paper, we present a personas-based guideline for system developers on how the humanization of digital transformation integrates into the design process. The proposed guideline uses the positive personas from the beginning as a basis for the transformation of the working environment into the digital form. We used the literature research as a preliminary study for the process of wellbeing-driven digital transformation design, consisting of questions for structuring the required information in the positive personas as well as a potential method that could be integrated into the wellbeing-based design process.

Nurhas, I., Aditya, B.R., Geisler, S.,  Pawlowski, J.,. Why does cultural diversity foster technology-enabled intergenerational collaboration?. The Fifth Information Systems International Conference (ISICO), 23-24 July 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia, Procedia Computer Science

Globalization and information technology enable people to join the movement of global citizenship and work without borders. However, different type of barriers existed that could affect collaboration in today’s work environment, in which different generations are involved. Although researchers have identified several technical barriers to intergenerational collaboration (iGOAL), the influence of cultural diversity on iGOAL has rarely been studied. Therefore, using a quantitative study approach, this paper investigates the impact of differences in cultural background on perceived technical and operational barriers to iGOAL. Our study reveals six barriers to IGC that are perceived differently by culturally diverse people (CDP) and non-CDP. Furthermore, CDP can foster IGC because CDP consider the barriers to be of less of a reason to avoid working with different generations than do non-CDP.

Rima Aditya, B., Permadi, Aditya., Nurhas, Irawan. and Pawlowski, Jan., (2019). Design Features for Gender-specific Differences in Blended Learning within Higher Education in Indonesia. In IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Education (IEEE TALE). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/TALE48000.2019.9225952

Blended learning offers learning solutions for higher educational institutions facing the industrial revolution 4.0. In this study, we investigated the influence factors student perceptions of blended learning based on gender-specific differences in Indonesia. We applied a research model to systematically assess the effect of design features on the effectiveness of blended learning indicators (intrinsic motivation and student satisfaction). Moreover, we evaluated the research model for both genders separately. Based on the quantitative survey of 223 Indonesian students, our study confirms that the design features significantly influence the effectiveness of blended learning for male and female students.

Strassmann, C., Arndt, A., Dahm, A., Nissen, D., Zwickler, B.,  Regy, B.,  Güven,M.,  Schulz, S. & Eimler, S.C. (2019). Do We Blame it for Its Gender? How Specific Gender Cues Affect the Evaluation of Virtual Online Assistants. Poster präsentiert auf der General Online Research Conference, Mar 6th – Mar 8nd 2019, Cologne, Germany.


Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C.,  Arntz,A.,  Keßler,D.,  Zielinski, S.,  Brandenberg, G.,  Dümpel, V. & Handmann, U. (2019, April). Relax Yourself - Using Virtual Reality to Enhance Employees' Mental Health and Work Performance. Relax Yourself-Using Virtual Reality to Enhance Employees' Mental Health and Work Performance. In Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (p. LBW0286). ACM.


Strassmann, C. & Eimler, S. (2019). Learning by Doing: Lessons Learned from Interdisciplinary Research-Oriented Teaching. Poster accepted at Annual Conference Improving University Teaching , Jul 24th – Jul 26nd 2019, Mülheim, Germany.

Modern teaching methods aim to integrate active research parts executed by the students themselves to train their scientific skills, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, as well as collaboration and communication. We discuss lessons learned, benefits and barriers (especially) from Applied Statistics (3rd semester) and Social and Media Psychology (5th semester) courses in which student from computer science study programs had to accomplish a whole cycle of a research process including literature study, hypotheses generation, the setup of (online) experiments, data collection, analysis and documentation in conference posters. Using an instrument provided by Böttcher and Thiel (2018) we assessed the level of student’s individual perception of research skills.

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C., Arntz,A.,  Keßler,D., Zielinski, S., Brandenberg, G., Dümpel, V. & Handmann, U. (2019). Positive and Relaxing Effects of Virtual Reality Applications. Poster accepted at 11th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, Sep 04th – Sep 06th 2019, Chemnitz, Germany.


Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C.,  Arntz, A.,  Keßler, D.,  Zielinski, S., Brandenberg, G.,  Dümpel, V. & Handmann, U. (2019). Virtual or Reality? Same Effects of Short-Term Relaxation Scenarios on Affect and Stress. Poster accepted at Technology, Mind & Society APA Conference, Oct 3rd - Oct 5th 2019, Washington, United States of America.



Arntz, A., Eimler, S & Handmann, U. (2018). Artificial Intelligence Driven Human-Machine Collaboration Scenarios in Virtual Reality. Intelligent Automation Symposium, 14.11.2018- 16.11.2018, Münster.


Arntz, A., Keßler, D. & Eimler, S. (2018). Evaluation des Einflusses von Beleuchtung auf die Aufmerksamkeit innerhalb von Virtual Reality.  In: Dachselt, R. & Weber, G. (Hrsg.), Mensch und Computer 2018 - Workshopband. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V..


Borgert, N. (2018). Shared Decision Making: A New Paradigm for the Human-Machine-Interaction?. Poster presented at the AI Symposium, Münster, Germany.

Historically, the industrial revolution offered the chance to massively boost the nation’s productivity. The question is whether the second machine age can be also a game-changer for working conditions. The human-artificial intelligence setting is highly relevant, for instance regarding the future importance of robo-advisors. Hence, we deduce from theoretical foundations a new approach to design the human-machine-interaction.

Eimler, S., Geisler, S. & Mischewski, P. (2018). Ethik im autonomen Fahrzeug: Zum menschlichen Verhalten in drohenden Unfallsituationen. In: Dachselt, R. & Weber, G. (Hrsg.), Mensch und Computer 2018 - Workshopband. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V..

Öffentliche Diskussionen zum autonomen Fahren zeigen einen hohen Anspruch, dass die Algorithmen in kritischen Fällen Entscheidungen nach ethischen Kriterien fällen. Diese für die Vielzahl von denk-baren Verkehrssituationen so zu erfassen, dass sie den Vorstellungen eines größten Teils der Bevölke-rung entspricht, stellt eine große methodische Herausforderung dar. In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, in wie weit eine überlegte Entscheidung mit dem Verhalten in einem Fahrsimulator übereinstimmt. Dabei wird bei einem großen Teil der Teilnehmer*innen ein Widerspruch zwischen geäußertem beab-sichtigtem Handeln und tatsächlichem Handeln offenbar.

Günther, L., Osterhoff, A., Thiel, C., Sommer, S., Niehoff, M., Sharma, M., Handmann, U., Koch, O & Grüneberg, C. (2018). Wirksamkeit eines Smartphone-unterstützten körperlich-kognitiven Trainingsprogrammes zur quartiersbezogenen Teilhabeförderung älterer Menschen. In Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie - Gerontologie und Geriatrie Kongress Vielfalt des Alterns: biomedizinische und psychosoziale Herausforderungen, 51, S. 62, Köln, Germany, 2018. Springer, Heidelberg. ISSN: 0948-6704.

Joiko, M., Kohnen, F., Lapinski, K., Moudrik, H., Nurhas, I., Paproth, F., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2018). Enabling decentral collaborative innovation processes-A web based real time collaboration platform. Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik 2018, pp. 1531-1542.

The main goal of this paper is to define a collaborative innovation process as well as a supporting tool. It is motivated through the increasing competition on global markets and the resultant propagation of decentralized projects with a high demand of innovative collaboration in global contexts. It bases on a project accomplished by the author group. A detailed literature review and the action design research methodology of the project led to an enhanced process model for decentral collaborative innovation processes and a basic realization of a browser based real time tool to enable these processes. The initial evaluation in a practical distributed setting has shown that the created tool is a useful way to support collaborative innovation processes.

Keßler, D., Arntz, A. & Eimler, S. (2018). Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Virtual and Augmented Reality Learning Applications. Intelligent Automation Symposium, Münster.


März, P., & Handmann, U. (2018). Driver Stress Response to Self-driving Vehicles and Takeover Request–An Expert Assessment. In International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design: Future Trends and Applications (S. 737-743). Springer, Cham.


Meyer, M., Bollen, L., & Eimler, S.C. (2018). Emoji, Emoji on the Wall, Show Me One I Show You All - An Exploratory Study on the Connection Between Traits and Emoji Usage. General Online Research Conference, Feb 28th – Mar 2nd 2018, Cologne, Germany.


Nuñez, T.R. & Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M. (2018). Veränderung des Behandlungsalltags durch neue Medien: Roboter und Agenten in der psychologischen Intervention. In O. Kothgassner & A. Felnhofer (Hrsg.), Klinische Cyberpsychologie und Cybertherapie. München: UTB


Nuñez, T.R. & Eimler, S.C. (2018). What if I Lost it? When the Mere Imagination of Smartphone Absence Causes Anxiety. General Online Research Conference, Feb 28th – Mar 2nd 2018, Cologne, Germany.

Eine umfangreiche Studie zur Smartphone-Nutzung der Deutschen hat ergeben, dass sich 71% der Befragten nicht vorstellen können, ohne ihr Smartphone zu leben. Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, wie sehr die Omnipräsenz mobiler Kommunikationsgeräte auf die Psychologie des Menschen wirkt. Andere Studien zeigen, dass die Absenz mobiler Geräte zu einem erhöhten Stresslevel seitens der Nutzer führt und bestätigen damit den psychologischen Einfluss von Smartphones. In dieser Studie sollte die Annahme geprüft werden, dass allein die Vorstellung einer Absenz des Smartphones ausreicht, um Stressreaktionen hervorzurufen. Anhand der Ergebnisse konnte diese Annahme bestätigt werden, was nochmals die Bedeutung des Smartphones für den Menschen unterstreicht.

Nuñez, T.R., Grewe, A., Trienens, L.-M., Kowalczyk, C., Nitschke, D. Tran, B.T.F., & Eimler, S.C. (2018). Phubbing Concerns Us All. How the Mere Observation of Smartphone Use in Others’ Social Interactions Generates Negative Emotions and Attitudes in Observers. General Online Research Conference, Feb 28th – Mar 2nd 2018, Cologne, Germany.

Phubbing oder Phone-Snubbing bezeichnet und kritisiert die Abwendung der Aufmerksamkeit von sozialen Interaktionspartnern als Folge eigener Smartphone-Nutzung und kann als neue Form von Ostrazismus bzw. sozialem Ausschluss verstanden werden. Studien zu diesem Verhalten haben gezeigt, dass Phubbing mit negativen Konsequenzen in Bezug auf Personen- und Beziehungsbewertung einhergeht; es wurde jedoch bislang kaum untersucht, inwieweit Phubbing das nicht direkt an der Interaktion beteiligte soziale Umfeld beeinträchtigt. Diese Studie setzte sich mit dieser Frage auseinander und fand u.a., dass Personen, die Phubbing beobachteten, gestresster waren und mehr negative Emotionen empfanden, als solche, die der Phubbing-Situation nicht ausgesetzt waren.

Nurhas, I., de Fries, T., Geisler, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2018). Positive Computing as Paradigm to Overcome Barriers to Global Co-authoring of Open Educational Resources. In Proceedings of the 23rd Conference of Open Innovations Association FRUCT (S. 38). FRUCT Oy.

The adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER) can support collaboration and knowledge sharing. One of the main areas of the usage OER is the internationalization, i.e., the use in a global context. However, the globally distributed co-creation of digital materials is still low. Therefore, we identify essential barriers, in particular for co-authoring of OER in global environments. We use a design science research method to introduce a barrier framework for co-authoring OER in global settings and propose a wellbeing-based system design constructed from the barrier framework for OER co-authoring tool. We describe how positive computing concepts can be used to overcome barriers, emphasizing design that promotes the author’s sense of competence, relatedness, and autonomy.


Günther, L., Osterhoff, A., Thiel, C., Sommer, S, Niehoff, M, Sharma, M.,Handmann, U., Koch, O.,, Grüneberg, C. (2017):  Quartier Agil” – Feasibility of Combined Physical and Cognitive Activities in the Neighborhood with Smartphone Support for Stimulating Social Participation in the Elderly. Proc. of the 8th Conference on HEPA, Zagreb, Croatia.


Nuñez, T.R., Bergmann, K., Prynda, K., & Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M., (2017). Lexical Alignment and Its Psychophysiological Effects in Human-Agent Interaction. Paper präsentiert auf der 10th Conference of the Media Psychology Division of the German Psychological Society, September 6th – 8th, Koblenz, Germany.


Nurhas, I., Geisler, S. & Pawlowski, J. (2017). Positive Personas: Integrating Well-being Determinants into Personas.In: Burghardt, M., Wimmer, R., Wolff, C. & Womser-Hacker, C. (Hrsg.), Mensch und Computer 2017 - Tagungsband. Regensburg: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.. (S. 387-390).

System design for well-being needs an appropriate tool to help designers to determine relevant requirements that can help human well-being to flourish. Personas come as a simple yet powerful tool in the early development stage of the user interface design. Considering well-being determinants in the early design process provide benefits for both the user and the development team. Therefore, in this short paper, we performed a literature study to provide a conceptual model of well-being in personas and propose positive design interventions in personas' creation process.


Nurhas, I., Pawlowski, J.,  Geisler, S., Kovtunenko M., Bayu, R. A. (2017): Group-centered framework towards a positive design of digital collaboration in global settings. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference  on industrial, enterprise, and system engineering, Bandung, Indonesia

globally distributed groups require collaborative systems to support their work. Besides being able to support the teamwork, these systems also should promote well-being and maximize the human potential that leads to an engaging system and joyful experience. Designing such system is a significant challenge and requires a thorough understanding of group work. We used the field theory as a lens to view the essential aspects of group motivation and then utilized collaboration personas to analyze the elements of group work. We integrated well-being determinants as engagement factors to develop a group-centered framework for digital collaboration in a global setting. Based on the outcomes, we proposed a conceptual framework to design an engaging collaborative system and recommend system values that can be used to evaluate the system further


Pawlowski, Jan (2015). Positive Computing - A New Trend in Business and Information Systems Engineering?, Business & Information Systems Engineering 6 (57), pp. 405-408. 

Available at: aisel.aisnet.org/bise/vol57/iss6/6