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Page: https://www.hochschule-ruhr-west.de//research/institute-of-positive-computing/publikationen/
Date: 21.09.2022, 21:49Clock

Institute of Positive Computing

2022

Arntz, A., Adler, F., Kitzmann, D., & Eimler, S.C. (accepted). Augmented Reality Supported Real-Time Data Processing Using Internet of Things Sensor Technology. HCI International 2022.

Internet of things (IoT) devices increasingly permeate everyday life and provide vital and convenient information. Augmented reality (AR) enables the embedding of this information in the environment using visualizations that can contextualize data for various applications such as Smart Home. Current applications providing a visual representation of the information are often limited to graphs or bar charts, neglecting the variety of possible coherence between the subject and the visualization. We present a setup for real-time AR-based visualizations of data collected by IoT devices. Three distinct battery-powered IoT microcontroller systems were designed and programmed. Each is outfitted with numerous sensors, i.e. for humidity or temperature, to interact with the developed AR application through a network connection. The AR application was developed using Unity3D and the Vuforia AR SDK for Android-based mobile devices with the goal of providing processed and visualized information that is comprehensible for the respective context. Inspired by weather applications for mobile devices, the visualization contains animated dioramas, with changing attributes based on the input data from the IoT microcontroller. This work contains the configuration of the IoT microcontroller hardware, the network interface used, the development process of the AR application, and its usage, complemented by possible future extensions described in an outlook.

Di Dia, A., Riebner, T., Arntz, A. & Eimler, S.C. (accepted). Augmented-Reality-Based Real-Time Patient Information for Nursing. HCI International 2022.

While the usage of digital systems in the medical sector has increased, nursing activities are still mostly performed without any form of digital assistance. Considering the complex and demanding procedures the medical personnel is confronted with, a high task load is expected which is prone to human errors. Solutions, however, need to match staff requirements and ideally involve them in the development process to ensure acceptance and usage. Based on desired application scenarios, we introduce a concept of an augmented reality (AR)-based patient data application that provides context-relevant information for nursing staff and doctors. Developed for the HoloLens 2, the application allows the retrieval and synchronization of the patient data from the host network of the respective hospital information system. For this purpose, a system infrastructure consisting of several software components was developed to simulate the exchange between the AR device and the independent hospital environment. The paper outlines the conceptual approach based on requirements collected from nurses, related work, the technical implementation and discusses limitations and future developments.

Fulantelli, G., Taibi, D., Scifo, L., Schwarze, V. & Eimler, S. C. (2022). Cyberbullying and Cyberhate as Two Interlinked Instances of Cyber-Aggression in Adolescence: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology13. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.909299

In this paper we present the results of a systematic review aimed at investigating what the literature reports on cyberbullying and cyberhate, whether and to what extent the connection between the two phenomena is made explicit, and whether it is possible to identify overlapping factors in the description of the phenomena. Specifically, for each of the 24 selected papers, we have identified the predictors of cyberbullying behaviors and the consequences of cyberbullying acts on the victims; the same analysis has been carried out with reference to cyberhate. Then, by comparing what emerged from the literature on cyberbullying with what emerged from the literature on cyberhate, we verify to what extent the two phenomena overlap in terms of predictors and consequences. Results show that the cyberhate issue related to adolescents is less investigated than cyberbullying, and most of the papers focusing on one of them do not refer to the other. Nevertheless, by comparing the predictors and outcomes of cyberbullying and cyberhate as reported in the literature, an overlap between the two concepts emerges, with reference to: the parent-child relationship to reduce the risk of cyber-aggression; the link between sexuality and cyber-attacks; the protective role of the families and of good quality friendship relationships; the impact of cyberbullying and cyberhate on adolescents' individuals' well-being and emotions; meaningful analogies between the coping strategies put in practice by victims of cyberbullying and cyberhate. We argue that the results of this review can stimulate a holistic approach for future studies on cyberbullying and cyberhate where the two phenomena are analyzed as two interlinked instances of cyber-aggression. Similarly, prevention and intervention programs on a responsible and safe use of social media should refer to both cyberbullying and cyberhate issues, as they share many predictors as well as consequences on adolescents' wellbeing, thus making it diminishing to afford them separately.

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C., Kololli, L., Arntz, A., van de Sand, K., & Rietz, A. (accepted). Effects of the Surrounding in Human-Robot Interaction: Stereotypic Perception of Robots and its Anthropomorphism. HCI International 2022.

Stereotypes and scripts guide human perception and expectations in everyday life. Research has found that a robot’s appearance influences the perceived fit in different application domains (e.g. industrial or social) and that the role a robot is presented in predicts its perceived personality. However, it is unclear how the surroundings as such can elicit a halo effect leading to stereotypical perceptions. This paper presents the results of an experimental study in which 206 participants saw 8 cartoon pictures of the robot Pepper in different application domains in a within-subjects online study. Results indicate that the environment a robot is placed in has an effect on the users’ evaluation of the robot’s warmth, competence, status in society, competition, anthropomorphism, and morality. As the first impression has an effect on users’ expectations and evaluation of the robot and the interaction with it, the effect of the application scenarios has to be considered carefully.

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S. C., Peltzer, I., Hermann, J., Dogangün, A., & Roth, S. (accepted). User-centered robots for municipal services: What do customers and service experts expect from robots in municipal institutions?. HCI International 2022.

The present work uses a user-centered design approach to investigate potential design requirements and user scenarios of social robots in municipal services. Qualitative interviews paired with two interactive workshops compared the expectations of potential costumers with those of administration experts of municipalities. The results indicate mainly similar expectations of the robot’s design and functionality, but revealed different perspectives: Customers thought more about specific design characteristics (e.g. the robots body temperature), while administration experts reflected more on service aspects (e.g. adapting the needs of different customers and especially people in need of support or the robustness of the system). Moreover, precise user scenarios that integrate the different ideas and preferences are presented. These can help researchers and practitioners to extract design requirements and application scenarios that are considered by the different stakeholders.

Strassmann, C., Helgert, A. & Lingnau, A. (2022, September, 21-23). Effects of a Collaborative Video-Learning-Tool on Flow Perception, Cognitive Load and Usability Evaluation [Conference presentation]. 4th International Conference on Higher Education Learning Methodologies and Technologies Online, Palermo, Italy

Educational research suggests that the use of videos for teaching, studying and learning can be meaningful and beneficial. E.g., Merkt et al. investigated the role of interactive features comparing print media with video learning [1]. We developed a collaborative framework called VGather2Learn (which in preliminary work was called Learnflix [4]), that supports students to watch and discuss teaching videos collaboratively in groups. By using this tool, students can collaborate on asynchronous teaching content and learn together through a chat and features to highlight specific video passages. VGather2Learn thus provides students with a form of communication and could be a useful tool against isolated learning. To evaluate the VGather2Learn tool and its functionalities a psychological evaluation study got conducted. this work presents a psychological evaluation of a collaborative synchronous video based online learning tool that supports learners to jointly watch and discuss pre-recorded videos. As assumed, the evaluation demonstrated positive effects of the tool, since it enhances important psychological processes (like flow and cognitive load) within the learning process. Moreover, its usability was rated as good and participants showed a high usage intention for the tool. Nevertheless, further investigations in long-term learning courses are needed to finally confirm the tools effectiveness.

Strassmann, C. & Diehl. I. (2022). Alexa Feels Blue and so DoI? Conversational Agents Displaying Emotions Via Light Modalities. In Rossi, S. & Sgorbissa, A. (Eds.), 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot & Human Interactive Communication (in press). IEEE Press

This paper examines how conversational agents (CAs) can communicate emotions non-verbally using light as communication modality. Therefore, we manipulated the CA Alexa to demonstrate emotions (joy and sorrow) using different light modalities (Echo Dot ring, a Hue lamp and the combination) with either a congruent verbal context (party or funeral) or no verbal context. In an online study 167 participants evaluated the perceived emotion of Alexa, their own emotional state as well as the perception of Alexa after watching a video with a user interacting with Alexa. Although the perceived emotions of Alexa were not affected by the experimental conditions, the results indicate that the perception of Alexa as well as the user’s emotion is affected by the displayed communication modality. As external light can be used to manipulate the users’ perception of CAs, the findings give relevant implications for the design of CAs.

Taibi, D., Börsting, J., Hoppe, U., Ognibene, D., Hernández-Leo, D., & Eimler, S. C. (2022, September, 21-23). Designing Educational Interventions to Increase Students’ Social Media Awareness - Experience From the COURAGE Project [Conference presentation]. 4th International Conference on Higher Education Learning Methodologies and Technologies Online, Palermo, Italy

Social media are an integral part of our everyday lives offering new opportunities for communication and interaction way beyond what was possible only a few years ago. Most people use social media, in order to share experiences, opinions, and news on prominent platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter. The ubiquity and usage intensity causes the situation that even children and adolescents are confronted with very heterogeneous, and sometimes harmful content. Algorithms, network, and content factors of social media may also represent threats for (young) users, ranging from digital addiction, discrimination, hate speech, misinformation, and polarization to manipulative influences of algorithms as well as body stereotyping or cyberbullying. Since users do not know how to protect themselves from harm transmitted through social media or how to help other users, educators are challenged to help students mitigate risks by developing critical skills. Teachers are being given an increasing responsibility in providing learning activities that stimulate reflection on the mechanisms behind the use of social media (e.g., toxic dynamics driven by other users or algorithms providing toxic content). However, educators are not adequately prepared to face these challenges, and, consequently, there is an increasing need to provide them with new methodologies and tools specifically designed for these purposes. Teachers as well as students would benefit from critical social media literacy since social media spaces are not neutral and students need strategies and tools to leverage the opportunities emerging in these spaces. In this perspective, the multinational and multidisciplinary team of the COURAGE project aims at providing educators with new tools and learning methodologies that can be adopted within higher education learning paths to train the educators in facing the social media threats and supporting their students accordingly.

Theophilou, E., Schwarze, V., Börsting, J., Sánchez-Reina, R., Scifo, L., Lomonaco, F., Taibi, D., & Eimler, S. C. (2022, September, 21-23). Enhancing Social Media Literacy Skills in Students: Empirically Investigating Virtual Learning Companions [Conference presentation]. 4th International Conference on Higher Education Learning Methodologies and Technologies Online, Palermo, Italy

In a digitally led society, where social media consumption is constantly increasing, users are confronted not only with positive, but also with toxic content and dynamics like cyberbullying, racism, hate speech, or fake news. Oftentimes, users are not aware of the severity (e.g., racist or homophobic comments) or level of manipulation (e.g., ideal body image which can be linked to eating disorders, feeding disorders, vigo-rexia) of specific postings, or do not know how to protect themselves against cyberbullying, discrimination or hate speech. On occasions, victims of cyber aggression even become perpetrators themselves, as they do not find another way out. This is highly problematic as it can initiate a severe circle expanding the dissemination of toxic behavior and content. This emphasizes the need to design and develop social media literacy interventions to raise awareness of the dangers and threats that are hidden within. However, most current approaches are limited in enabling deep reflection as they provide detached learning situations, or tend to be centered on more traditional methods. The project COURAGE introduces a new perspective on social media literacy by proposing the integration of educational opportunities within a simulated social media platform (SMP) addressed to adolescents. To successfully achieve this, we propose the use of virtual learning companions (VLC) that can provide opportunities for users to learn (e.g., empathy training or information transfer) whilst they naturally explore social media.

2021

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., Hoppe, H. U. (2021). A virtual sandbox approach to studying the effect of augmented communication on human-robot collaboration. Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.728961

Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) has the potential for a paradigm shift in industrial production by complementing the strengths of industrial robots with human staff. However, exploring these scenarios in physical experimental settings is costly and difficult, eg, due to safety considerations. We present a virtual reality application that allows the exploration of HRC work arrangements with autonomous robots and their effect on human behavior. Prior experimental studies conducted using this application demonstrated the benefits of augmenting an autonomous robot arm with communication channels on subjective aspects such as perceived stress. Motivated by current safety regulations that hinder HRC to expand its full potential, we explored the effects of the augmented communication on objective measures (collision rate and produced goods) within a virtual sandbox application. Explored through a safe and replicable setup, the goal was to determine whether communication channels that provide guidance and explanation on the robot can help mitigate safety hazards without interfering with the production effectiveness of both parties. This is based on the theoretical foundation that communication channels enable the robot to explain its action, helps the human collaboration partner to comprehend the current state of the shared task better, and react accordingly. Focused on the optimization of production output, reduced collision rate, and increased perception of safety, a between-subjects experimental study with two conditions (augmented communication vs non-augmented) was conducted.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., Keßler, D., Thomas, J.,  Helgert, A., Rehm, M., Graf, E., Wientzek, S. & Budur, B. (2021): "Walking on the Bright Sight: Evaluating a Photovoltaics Virtual Reality Education Application". IEEE, AIVR Conference.

Virtual reality (VR) has demonstrated its potential in educational settings, allowing students to explore complex and otherwise inaccessible learning scenarios and material. We present a virtual reality learning application based on a real photovoltaics (PV)-array as an interdisciplinary work-in-progress approach towards an engaging VR-application with long-lasting learning effects. Students can inspect, alter and connect individual PV-modules and engage with the learning material in a game-based way. The application was developed by an interdisciplinary team in a participatory approach. To test, expand and improve the VR-application in future iterations, it was used in a course with students, who evaluated their experience via a pre-/post-online questionnaire and additional semi-structured individual interviews (N=7). The results show positive (self-reported) effects on different aspects covered in the evaluation (e.g. usability, learning motivation) regarding PV-arrays. Students recognized the benefit over traditional learning material and praised the strong resemblance of the VR-environment with the real counterpart.

Arntz, A., DiDia, A., Riebner, T. & Eimler, S. C. (2021): "Machine Learning Concepts for Dual-Arm Robots within Virtual Reality". IEEE, AIVR Conference.

The collaboration between humans and artificial intelligence (AI) driven robots lay the foundations for new approaches in industrial production. However, intensive research is required to develop machine learning behavior that is not only able to execute shared tasks but also acts following the expectations of the human partner. Rigid setups and restrictive safety measures deny the acquisition of adequate training samples to build general-purpose machine learning solutions for evaluation within experimental studies. Based on established research that trains AI systems within simulated environments, we present a machine learning implementation that enables the training of a dual-arm robot within a virtual reality (VR) application. Building upon preceding research, an activity diagram for a shared task for the machine learning model to learn, was conceptualized. A first approach, using vector distances, led to flawed results, whereas a revised solution based on collision boxes resulted in a stable outcome. While the implementation of the machine learning model is fixed on the activity diagram of the shared task, the presented approach is expandable as a universal platform for evaluating Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) scenarios in VR. Future iterations of this VR sandbox application can be used to explore optimal workplace arrangements and procedures with autonomous industrial robots in a wide range of possible scenarios.

Arntz, A., Kessler, D. & Eimler, S. C. (2021). EnLighten: A Photovoltaics Learning Environment in Virtual Reality. In 2021 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) (pp. 221-223). IEEE.

Past examples have illustrated the potential for virtual reality (VR) in educational settings, allowing students the exploration of complex and otherwise hardly accessible learning objects and content. We introduce a VR-photovoltaics learning application. Replicated from a real photovoltaics(PV)-array, we designed a VR-application where students can inspect PV-modules and explore their distinct characteristics. By using current and historical data from the real PV-array through a network interface, combined with a dynamic weather system, a great versatility in scenarios to experiment and learn with can be created. In its modular conceptualization, the current version of the application offers flexible expandability for diverse learning scenarios with multiple data sources.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., Straßmann, C. & Hoppe, H. U. (2021, March). On the Influence of Autonomy and Transparency on Blame and Credit in Flawed Human-Robot Collaboration. In Companion of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 377-381).

The collaboration between humans and autonomous AI-driven robots in industrial contexts is a promising vision that will have an impact on the sociotechnical system. Taking research from the field of human teamwork as guiding principles as well as results from human robot collaboration studies this study addresses open questions regarding the design and impact of communicative transparency and behavioral autonomy in a human robot collaboration. In an experimental approach, we tested whether an AI-narrative and communication panels of a robot-arm trigger the attribution of more human like traits and expectations going along with a changed attribution of blame and failure in a flawed collaboration.

Detjen, H., Salini, M., Kronenberger, J., Geisler, S. & S. Schneegass (2021): Towards Transparent Behavior of Automated Vehicles: Design and Evaluation of HUD Concepts to Support System Predictability Through Motion Intent Communication. MobileHCI 2021.

In automated vehicles, it is essential to feedforward motion intentions to users so that they understand the vehicle’s actions. Otherwise, non-transparency limits situation awareness and leads to mistrust. In this work, we are communicating the vehicle’s actions to the user either by displaying icons (planar HUD) or through augmented reality (contact-analog HUD) to increase transparency. We developed both concepts in a user-centered design process. Further, we evaluated them in two subsequent user studies (N = 27). In the first study, we focused on UX and trust in higher automation levels (cf. SAE level 3-5). In the second study, we focused on safety and error prevention in lower automation levels (cf. SAE levels 1-2). Our results show that both visualizations increase UX and trust in an automated system. Nevertheless, the AR approach outperforms the icon-based approach by achieving higher user experience as well as faster and less error-prone take-overs of participants.

Detjen, H.,  Nurhas, I. & Geisler, S. (2021): Attitudes Towards Autonomous Public Transportation. AutoUI 2021. H. Detjen, S. Geisler, S. Schneegass. Driving as Side Task: Exploring Intuitive Input Modalities for Multitasking in Automated Vehicles. CHI EA '21: Extended Abstracts of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2021.

Public transportation will become highly automated in the future, and at some point, human drivers are no longer necessary. Today many people are skeptical about such scenarios of autonomous public transport (abbr.: APT). In this paper, we assess users’ subjective priority of different factors that lead to personal acceptance or rejection of APT using an adapted online version of the Q-Methodology with 44 participants. We found four prototypical attitudes to which subgroups of participants relate: 1) technical enthusiasts, 2) social skeptics, 3) service-oriented non-enthusiasts, and 4) technology-oriented non-enthusiasts. We provide an unconventional perspective on APT acceptance that helps practitioners prioritize design requirements and communicate, targeting users’ specific attitudes.

Detjen, H., Degenhart, R.N., Schneegass & S. Geisler. Supporting User Onboarding in Automated Vehicles through Multimodal Augmented Reality Tutorials. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 5 (5), 22, 2021.

Misconceptions of vehicle automation functionalities lead to either non-use or dangerous misuse of assistant systems, harming the users’ experience by reducing potential comfort or compromise safety. Thus, users must understand how and when to use an assistant system. In a preliminary online survey, we examined the use, trust, and the perceived understanding of modern vehicle assistant systems. Despite remaining incomprehensibility (36–64%), experienced misunderstandings (up to 9%), and the need for training (around 30%), users reported high trust in the systems. In the following study with first-time users, we examine the effect of different User Onboarding approaches for an automated parking assistant system in a Tesla and compare the traditional text-based manual with a multimodal augmented reality (AR) smartphone application in means of user acceptance, UX, trust, understanding, and task performance. While the User Onboarding experience for both approaches shows high pragmatic quality, the hedonic quality was perceived significantly higher in AR. For the automated parking process, reported hedonic and pragmatic user experience, trust, automation understanding, and acceptance do not differ, yet the observed task performance was higher in the AR condition. Overall, AR might help motivate proper User Onboarding and better communicate how to operate the system for inexperienced users.

Detjen, H., Faltaous, S.,  Pfleging, B., Geisler, S. & Schneegass, S. (2021): How to Increase Automated Vehicles’ Acceptance through In-Vehicle Interaction Design: A Review. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 37 (4), 308-330, 2021.

Automated vehicles (AVs) are on the edge of being available on the mass market. Research often focuses on technical aspects of automation, such as computer vision, sensing, or artificial intelligence. Nevertheless, researchers also identified several challenges from a human perspective that need to be considered for a successful introduction of these technologies. In this paper, we first analyze human needs and system acceptance in the context of AVs. Then, based on a literature review, we provide a summary of current research on in-car driver-vehicle interaction and related human factor issues. This work helps researchers, designers, and practitioners to get an overview of the current state of the art.

Geisler, S. (2021): Von Fahrinformation über Fahrassistenz zum autonomen Fahren. Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion, 383-403, Springer-Vieweg.

&Zur sicheren Steuerung eines Fahrzeugs im Straßenverkehr sind eine ganze Reihe von An- zeigen notwendig, beispielsweise die eigene Geschwindigkeit. Viele Funktionen zur Fahr- assistenz benötigen Eingaben der fahrenden Person. Wie auch in den vergangenen Jahren die Funktionsvielfalt gewachsen ist, so ist auch die Anzahl von Anzeige- und Bedienele- menten gestiegen. Im vorangegangenen Kapitel wurde bereits die Begrenztheit der menschlichen Leistungsfähigkeit bei der gleichzeitigen Aufnahme und Interpretation von Informationen dargelegt. Die Herausforderung an das HMI im Fahrzeug ist durch die ge- wachsene Anzahl und auch Komplexität der Systeme enorm gestiegen. In diesem Kapitel sollen zu ausgewählten Funktionen die Anzeige und Bedienkonzepte vorgestellt werden, von einfachen Anzeigen bis zu Strategien für das autonom fahrende Fahrzeug. Dabei wird ein besonderes Augenmerk auf die sicherheitsrelevanten Aspekte gelegt.

Geisler, S. (2021): Menschliche Aspekte bei der Entwicklung von Fahrassistenzsystemen. Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion, 363-382, Springer-Vieweg.

Kaum ein sicherheitskritisches System hat eine so große Verbreitung bei Privatpersonen gefunden wie das Automobil. Seit seiner Erfindung hat es eine rasante Weiterentwicklung erfahren, von einer rein mechanischen Maschine zu einem System, bei dem heute die meisten Innovationen auf elektronischen Komponenten basieren.

Helgert, A., Eimler, S.C. & Arntz, A. (2021): "Learning About Catcalling: An Interactive Virtual Gallery Concept Raising Awareness for Street Harassment". IEEE, AIVR Conference.

In this paper, we describe a virtual reality (VR) application that educates and sensitizes visitors for street harassment, a globally prevalent form of violence predominantly targeted against women. The phenomenon, also known as Catcalling, recently gained renewed attention in public discussions initiated by social media activists. Combining VR with interactive instruction settings known from museums might be a promising way to effectively reach victims, bystanders, and aggressors alike and obtain a lasting attitude and behavior change. We present a virtual gallery where visitors can explore a variety of curated interactive multimedia material intended to inform, raise awareness, inspire empathy, perspective-taking, and behavioral change. With interactions such as a self-assessment test, as well as opportunities for visitors to leave feedback and thoughts in the gallery, this virtual world can be used as a sensitization tool. Based on a first evaluation with experts (N=16) , the original proof-of-concept prototype was extended and evaluated by a larger group including students (N=50)

Helgert, A. , Eimler,S. C. & A. Arntz (2021):"Stop Catcalling - A Virtual Environment Educating Against Street Harassment," 2021 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2021, pp. 419-421, doi: 10.1109/ICALT52272.2021.00133

Street harassment, especially against women, is a prevalent phenomenon also known as catcalling. Numerous campaigns have tried to raise awareness for practices like publicly commenting on women's bodies, whistling or unwanted sexual advances. Recently, activists against catcalling have been especially present on Social Media, outreaching to large international audiences. However, effective ways still have to be found to stimulate an intense reflexion and raise empathy, especially among aggressors and bystanders. Using a virtual reality gallery, including diverse multimedia material and feedback options to stimulate a discussion among visitors, we create an immersive, educating and interactive experience. Rather than moralizing, the gallery promotes a self-paced exploration of the material, combines personal stories with instructive facts to sensitize to street harassment. 

Krämer, N.C., Neubaum, G., Winter, S., Schaewitz, L., Eimler, S. & Mary Beth Oliver (2021). I feel what they say: the effect of social media comments on viewers’ affective reactions toward elevating online videos. Media Psychology, 24 (3), 332-358.

The present study examined whether peer comments on video-sharing platforms can influence the emotional reactions toward entertaining videos. This question is especially relevant with regard to meaningful videos known to increase prosocial motivation and reduce stereotypes. In a 3x3x2 between-subjects online experiment (N = 732), we varied the type of video (unity of humankind, portrayals of human kindness, funny videos) and valence (positive, neutral, negative) as well as internationality (English vs international) of peer reactions. Results demonstrate that peer comments indeed alter the emotional effects of the video clip, with negative comments leading to a reduced sense of elevation. The extent to which viewers socially identified with commenters explained this pattern and intensified associated effects such as an increased universal orientation.

Lakbir, M., Akyildiz, S., Gupta, P., Afola, M., & Sieger, L. N. (2021). An interface for increasing users’ understanding of smart home systems using gamification. Mensch und Computer 2021 Workshopband.

Smart home systems are becoming more and more popular as the technologies become more sophisticated and efficient. Despite this interest and popularity, the use and acceptance of smart home systems are still low. This is due to factors such as lack of under- standing of how smart home systems work, as well as concerns about privacy and data protection. We created a concept of a smart home interface that is supposed to increase understanding of the functioning and data management of the system through gamifi- cation. Interviews were conducted with possible users, who were questioned about their experiences with and opinions about certain aspects of smart home systems, to further investigate the factors that impact acceptance. After that, the subjects were presented our concept, which is supposed to solve these barriers. Results show that most participants worry about a lack of transparency of data usage in a smart home but have mostly positive feelings about our concept. We conclude that our gamification approach has the potential to make people more aware of how personal data works and how it is handled

Lingnau A., Strassmann C., Helgert A., Benjes M. and Neumann A. (2021), "Learnflix: A Tool for Collaborative Synchronous Video Based Online Learning," 2021 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2021, pp. 119-121, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT52272.2021.00043.

The increase of social isolation amongst students due to remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic leads to decreased learning efficiency as well as extenuated satisfaction with students' learning experiences. In this paper we present an approach to tackle these problems by providing a tool that helps students organise collaborative learning with videos.

Nurhas, Irawan, Henri Pirkkalainen, Stefan Geisler, and Jan Pawlowski. (2021), "Examining Competing Entrepreneurial Concerns in a Social Question and Answer (SQA) Platform." In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management-Volume 3: KMIS, vol. 2021, (pp. 145-152). SCITEPRESS. https://doi.org/10.5220/0010661000003064

This study aims to determine the competing concerns of people interested in startup development and entrepreneurship by using topic modeling and sentiment analysis on a social question-and-answer (SQA) website. Understanding the underlying concerns of startup entrepreneurs is critical to society and economic growth. Therefore, greater scientific support for entrepreneurship remains necessary, including data mining from virtual social communities. In this study, an SQA platform was used to identify the sentiment of thirty concerns of people interested in startup entrepreneurship. Based on topic modeling and sentiment analysis of 18819 inquiries in various forums on an SQA, we identified additional questions about founder figures, keys to success, and the location of a startup. In addition, we found that general questions were rated more positively, especially when it came to pitching, finding good sources, disruptive innovation, idea generation, and marketing advice. On average, the identified concerns were considered 48.9 percent positive, 41 percent neutral, and 10.1 percent negative. This research establishes a critical foundation for future research and development of digital startups by outlining a variety of different concerns associated with startup development in the digital age.

Nurhas, Irawan, Stefan Geisler, and Jan Pawlowski. (2021), "Developing a Competency Framework for Intergenerational Startup Innovation in a Digital Collaboration Setting." In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, vol. 2021, (pp. 110-118). SCITEPRESS. https://doi.org/10.5220/0010652100003064

This study proposes a framework for the collaborative development of global start-up innovators in a multigenerational digital environment. Intergenerational collaboration has been identified as a strategy to support entrepreneurs during their formative years. However, integrating and fostering intergenerational collaboration remains elusive. Therefore, this study aims to identify competencies for successful global start- ups through intergenerational knowledge transfer. We used a systematic literature review to identify a competency set consisting of growth virtues, effectual creativity, technical domain, responsive teamwork, values-based organization, sustainable networking, cultural awareness, and facilitating intergenerational safety. The competency framework serves as a foundation for knowledge management research on the global innovation readiness of people to collaborate across generations in the digital age.

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., Ojala, A. and Pawlowski, J.M. (2021). "Barriers and wellbeing-oriented enablers of intergenerational innovation in the digital age." Universal Access in the Information Society. (pp. 1-17). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-021-00844-w

So far, researchers have used a wellbeing-centered approach to catalyze successful intergenerational collaboration (IGC) in innovative activities. However, due to the subject’s multidisciplinary nature, there is still a dearth of comprehensive research devoted to constructing the IGC system. Thus, the purpose of this study is to fill a research void by providing a conceptual framework for information technology (IT) system designers to use as a jumping-off point for designing an IGC system with a wellbeing-oriented design. A systematic literature study was conducted to identify relevant terms and develop a conceptual framework based on a review of 75 selected scientific papers. The result consists of prominent thematic linkages and a conceptual framework related to design technology for IGC systems. The conceptual framework provides a comprehensive overview of IGC systems in the innovation process by identifying five barrier dimensions and using six wellbeing determinants as IGC catalysts. Moreover, this study discusses future directions for research on IGC systems. This study offers a novel contribution by shifting the technology design process from an age-based design approach to wellbeing-driven IGC systems. Additional avenues for investigation were revealed through the analysis of the study’s findings.

Nurhas, Irawan, Bayu R. Aditya, Deden W. Jacob, and Jan M. Pawlowski. (2021),"Understanding the challenges of rapid digital transformation: the case of COVID-19 pandemic in higher education." Behaviour & Information Technology. (pp. 1-17). https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2021.1962977

Rapid digital transformation is taking place due to the COVID-19 pandemic, forcing organisations and higher educational institutions to change their working and learning culture. This study explores the challenges of rapid digital transformation arising during the pandemic in the higher education context. This research used the Q-methodology to understand the nine challenges that higher education encountered, perceived differently as four main patterns: (1) Digital-nomad enterprise; (2) Corporate-collectivism; (3) Well-being-oriented; and (4) Pluralistic. This study broadens the current understanding of digital transformation, especially in higher education. The nine challenges and four patterns of transformation actors serve as a starting point for organisations in supporting technological choice and strategic interventions, based on individual, group, and organisational behavioural levels. Moreover, five propositions, based on the competing concerns of these challenges, establish a framework for comprehending the ecosystem that enables rapid digital transformation. Strategies, prerequisites, and key factors during the (digital) technology development process benefit the cyber-society ecosystem. As a practical contribution, Q-methodology was used to investigate perspectives on digitalisation challenges during the pandemic.

Sieger, L. N., & Detjen, H. (2021). Exploring Users’ Perceived Control Over Technology. In Mensch und Computer 2021 (pp. 344-348).

Intelligent systems become more and more a part of our everyday lives and typically act autonomously. Design guidelines and constructs related to the control of traditional systems often do not apply to them. Still, perceived control over these systems is important to users and affect acceptance and intention to use them. This paper presents an explorative online study. Participants named systems over which they sense much or less control and described features and properties that lead to that perception or that affect their desire for control. We found that (1) perceived control is strongly influenced by not directly control-related design features such as effective or efficient use, (2) poor comprehensibility and malfunctioning are highly affecting users control feeling, (3) users value customizability and the possibility for personalization of systems, (4) people are highly aware of privacy control issues of modern online connected technology, and (5) smart systems face the same control-related challenges as non-smart systems, but suffer from still being new to the users. Our findings help to understand the complex phenomena of perceived control over system with different levels of intelligence and autonomy from the users’ perspective and give suggestions for the design of future systems.

Strassmann, C., Arntz, A. & Eimler, S.C. (2021). Inspiring Movement — Physical Activity in a Virtual Sea as a Driver for Ecological Awareness. International Journal of Semantic Computing, Vol. 15, No. 04, pp. 539-559. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1793351X21400158

As environmental pollution continues to expand, new ways for raising awareness for the consequences need to be explored. Virtual reality has emerged as an effective tool for behavioral change. This paper investigates if virtual reality applications controlled through physical activity can support an even stronger effect, because they enhance attention and recall performance by stimulating working memory through motor functions. This was tested in an experimental study (N=47) using a virtual reality head-mounted display in combination with the ICAROS fitness device enabling participants to explore either a plastic-polluted or a non-polluted sea. Results indicated that using a regular controller elicits more presence and a more intense Flow experience than the ICAROS condition, which people controlled via their physical activity. Moreover, the plastic-polluted stimulus was more effective in inducing people’s stated tendency to change their attitude than a non-polluted sea.

2020

Arntz, A. and Eimler, S. C. (2020).  Experiencing AI in VR: A qualitative Study on Designing a Human-Machine Collaboration Scenario.  In HCI International 2020 – Late BreakingPosters, eds.  C. Stephanidis, M. Antona, and S. Ntoa (Cham:  Springer International Pub-lishing), vol. 1293 of Communications in Computer and Information  Science.   299–307. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60700-5 38

This paper describes the setup and results of a qualitative interview study, in which participants were given the opportunity to interact with an AI-based representation of a robotic-arm in a virtual reality environment. Nine participants were asked to to jointly assemble a product with their robotic partner. The different aspects of their experiences, expectations and preferences towards the interaction with the AI-based industrial collaboration partner were assessed. Results of this study help to inform the design of future studies exploring working arrangements and communication between individuals and robots in collaborating together.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., and Hoppe, H. U. (2020).  Augmenting the Human-Robot Communication Channel in Shared Task Environments.  In Collaboration Technologies and SocialComputing, eds. A. Nolte, C. Alvarez, R. Hishiyama, I.-A. Chounta, M. J.  Rodrıguez-Triana, and T. Inoue (Cham: Springer  International Publishing), vol.   12324 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science.  20–34. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58157-2 2

Adaptive robots that collaborate with humans in shared task environments are expected to enhance production efficiency and flexibility in a near future. In this context, the question of acceptance of such a collaboration by human workers is essential for a successful implementation. Augmenting the robot-to-human communication channel with situation-specific and explanatory information might increase the workers' willingness to collaborate with artificial counterparts, as a robot that provides guidance and explanation might be perceived as more cooperative in a social sense. However, the effects of using different augmentation strategies and parameters have not yet been sufficiently explored. This paper examines the usage of augmenting industrial robots involved in shared task environments by conducting an evaluation in a virtual reality (VR) setting. The results provide a first step towards an iterative design process aiming to facilitate and enhance the collaboration between human's and robot's in industrial contexts.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. C., and Hoppe, H. U. (2020).  “The Robot-Arm Talks Back to me” -Human Perception of Augmented Human-Robot Collaboration in Virtual Reality.  In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (IEEE),307–312.  http://doi.org/10.1109/AIVR50618.2020.00062

The usage of AI enhanced robots in shared task environments is likely to become more and more common with the increase of digitalization in different industrial sectors. To take up this new challenge, research on the design of Human-Robot-Collaboration (HRC) involving AI-based systems has yet to establish common targets and guidelines. This paper presents results from an explorative qualitative study. Participants (\textit{N} = 80) were either exposed to a virtual representation of an industrial robot-arm equipped with several augmentation channels for communication with the human operator (lights, textual statements about intentions, etc.) or one with no communicative functions at all. Across all conditions, participants recognized the benefit of collaborating with robots in industrial scenarios regarding work efficiency and alleviation of working conditions. However, a communication channel from the robot to the human is crucial for achieving these benefits. Participants interacting with the non-communicative robot expressed dissatisfaction about the workflow. In both conditions we found remarks about the insufficient speed of the robot-arm for an efficient collaborative process. Our results indicate a wider spectrum of questions to be further explored in the design of collaborative experiences with intelligent technological counterparts considering efficiency, safety, economic success and well-being.

Arntz, A., D. Kessler, N. Borgert, N. Zengeler, M. Jansen, U. Handmann, S.C. Eimler. Navigating a Heavy Industry Environment Using Augmented Reality - A Comparison of Two Indoor Navigation Designs. In: International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 3-18, July 19th-24th, 2020.

The fourth industrial revolution seeks to enhance and optimize industrial processes through digital systems. However, such systems need to meet special criteria for usability and task support, ensuring users’ acceptance and safety. This paper presents an approach to support employees in heavy industries with augmented reality based indoor navigation and instruction systems. An experimental study examined two different user interface concepts (navigation path vs. navigation arrow) for augmented reality head-mounted-displays. In order to validate a prototypical augmented reality application that can be deployed in such production processes, a simulated industrial environment was created. Participants walked through the scenario and were instructed to work on representative tasks, while the wearable device offered assistance and guidance. Users’ perception of the system and task performance were assessed. Results indicate a superior performance of the navigation path design, as it granted participants significantly higher perceived support in the simulated working tasks. Nevertheless, the covered distance by the participants was significantly shorter in navigation arrow condition compared to the navigation path condition. Considering that the navigation path design resulted in a higher perceived Support, renders this design approach more suitable for assisting personnel working at industrial workplaces

Arntz, A., S.C. Eimler, D. Keßler, A. Nabokova, S. Schädlich. Thermodynamics Reloaded: Experiencing Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning in AR. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (pp. 319-322). IEEE.

Augmented Reality (AR) has great potential for new didactic concepts in teaching. Environments, information and objects can be comprehensively and dynamically represented, supporting self-paced and holistic learning. This paper presents an implementation of a multimodal AR-application for the purpose of teaching complex features and mechanics of a "Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning System" in a situated and engaging way. The application was designed and implemented by an interdisciplinary team and evaluated in a mixed-methods approach. Results show a high usability and acceptance of the application. Students recognized the benefit of the application regarding their motivation and learning gains and made suggestions for further improvements.

Deiters, W., Geisler, S., Hörner, F., & Knaup, A. K. (Eds.). (2020). Die Kommunikation und ihre Technologien: Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven auf Digitalisierung (Vol. 66). transcript Verlag.

 

Detjen, H., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020). Implicit Cooperation: Emotion Detection for Validation and Adaptation of Automated Vehicles' Driving Behavior. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.13044.

 

Detjen, H., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020). “Help, Accident Ahead!” Using Mixed Reality Environments in Automated Vehicles to Support Occupants After Passive Accident Experiences. In 12th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (pp. 58-61).

 

Detjen, H., Faltaous, S., Pfleging, B., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020). How to Increase Automated Vehicles’ Acceptance through In-Vehicle Interaction Design: A Review. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 1-23.

 

Detjen, H., Geisler, S., & Schneegass, S. (2020, October). Maneuver-based Control Interventions During Automated Driving: Comparing Touch, Voice, and Mid-Air Gestures as Input Modalities. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 3268-3274). IEEE.

 

Keßler, D., A. Arntz, J. Friedhoff, S.C. Eimler. Mill Instructor: Teaching Industrial CNC Procedures Using Virtual Reality. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR) (pp. 231-234). IEEE.

Virtual Reality (VR) holds great potential for new didactic concepts in teaching, since environments, information and objects can be represented and manipulated digitally. Especially when it comes to training environments that include potentially dangerous processes, are expensive or bring the risk of damage to important tools, VR offers an alternative way of approaching a new subject. This paper presents a VR-application used in the studies of mechanical engineering. It includes the virtual representation of a Hermle CNC C42U milling machine, which serves to acquire basic knowledge in controlling such a system, avoiding safety risks and logistical constraints. Results from an evaluation with the target group show a good usability and (perceived) impact on the user's learning gain.

Nuñez, T.R., T. Radtke, S.C. Eimler. A third-person perspective on Phubbing: Observing smartphone-induced social exclusion generates negative affect, stress, and derogatory attitudes. In: Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2020.

Phubbing (phone-snubbing) has become a pervasive public communication phenomenon which adversely affects its targets and sources. Yet, research on phubbing is not built on a consistent theoretical basis and examinations on its effects on the public are still missing. This study aimed at addressing these research gaps by conceptualizing the behavior as an act of smartphone-induced social exclusion and investigating whether phubbing impacts its observers. In a between-subject experiment, N = 160 participants observed photos of dyadic interpersonal interactions in different everyday contexts which depicted one-sided, reciprocal, or no phubbing. Results revealed that observers of phubbing experienced negative affect and stress. Observers also derogated individuals who used their smartphones in social interactions regarding their warmth and competence; these effects were mediated by observers’ perceived relationship quality between the observed persons. Affective and cognitive outcomes emerged independently of observers’ gender. As these findings are in line with the effects and processes outlined in the temporal need-threat model of ostracism (i.e., social exclusion), they support the assumptions that phubbing is a form of smartphone-induced social exclusion and that its negative effects go beyond social interactions in which the behavior occurs. With this, the present study expands research regarding a modern communication phenomenon by strengthening its theoretical foundation and arriving at important theoretical and practical implications concerning targets, sources, and observers of phubbing.

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., Ojala, A., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2020). Towards a Wellbeing-driven System Design for Intergenerational Collaborative Innovation: A Literature Review. In Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. University of Hawai'i at Manoa. DOI: doi.org/10.24251/HICSS.2020.062

Researchers have previously utilized the advantages of a design driven by well-being and intergenerational collaboration (IGC) for successful innovation. Unfortunately, scant information exists regarding barrier dimensions and correlated design solutions in the information systems (IS) domain, which can serve as a starting point for a design oriented toward well-being in an IGC system. Therefore, in this study, we applied the positive computing approach to guide our analysis in a systematic literature review and developed a framework oriented toward well-being for a system with a multi-generational team. Our study contributes to the IS community by providing five dimensions of barriers to IGC and the corresponding well-being determinants for positive system design. In addition, we propose further research directions to close the research gap based on the review outcomes.

Nurhas, I., Boutouil, M., Geisler, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2020). Design Principles of Collaborative Learning Space Connecting Teachers and Refugee Children: A Design Science Research Study. In EDULEARN Proceedings. IATED Academy. Doi: dx.doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2020.1763

Learning the German language is one of the most critical challenges for refugee children in Germany. It is a prerequisite to allow communication and integration into the educational system. To solve the underlying problem, we conceptualized a set of principles for the design of language learning systems to support collaboration between teachers and refugee children, using a Design Science Research approach. The proposed design principles offer functional and non-functional requirements of systems, including the integration of open educational resources, different media types to develop visual and audio narratives that can be linked to the cultural and social background. This study also illustrates the use of the proposed design principles by providing a working prototype of a learning system. In this, refugee children can learn the language collaboratively and with freely accessible learning resources. Furthermore, we discuss the proposed design principles with various sociotechnical aspects of the well-being determinants to promote a positive system design for different cultural and generational settings. Overall, despite some limitations, the implemented design principles can optimize the potential of open educational resources for the research context and derive further recommendations for further research.

Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M., C. Straßmann, N.C. Krämer. Language Learning with Artificial Entities: Effects of an Artificial Tutor´s Embodiment and Behaviour on Users' Alignment and Evaluation. In: International Conference on Social Robotics, November 14th-18th, 2020.

Based on the assumption that humans align linguistically to their interlocutor, the present research investigates if linguistic alignment towards an artificial tutor can enhance language skills and which factors might drive this effect. A 2 2 between-subjects design study examined the effect of an artificial tutor’s embodiment (robot vs. virtual agent) and behavior (meaningful nonverbal behavior vs. idle behavior) on linguistic alignment, learning outcome and interaction perception. While embodiment and nonverbal behavior affects the perception of the tutor and the interaction with it, no effect on users’ linguistic alignment was found nor an effect on users learning outcomes.

Straßmann, C., A. Arntz, S.C. Eimler. Under The (Plastic) Sea - Sensitizing People Toward Ecological Behaviour Using Virtual Reality Controlled by Users´ Physical Activity. In: 3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality, IEEE Computer Society Press, December 2020.

As environmental pollution continues to expand, new ways for raising awareness for the consequences need to be explored. Virtual reality has emerged as an effective tool for behavioral change. This paper investigates if virtual reality applications controlled through physical activity can support an even stronger effect, because it enhances the attention and recall performance by stimulating the working memory through motor functions. This was tested in an experimental study using a virtual reality head-mounted display in combination with the ICAROS fitness device enabling participants to explore either a plastic-polluted or non-polluted sea. Results indicated that using a regular controller elicits more presence and a more intense Flow experience than the ICAROS condition, which people controlled via their physical activity. Moreover, the plastic-polluted stimulus was more effective in inducing attitude change than a non-polluted sea.

Straßmann, C., N.C. Krämer, H. Buschmeier, S. Kopp. Appearance of a Health-Advisor. Age-related Differences in the Evaluation of a Virtual Assistant´s Appearance and Embodiment in a Health-Related Interaction. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2020.

Assistive technologies have become more important owing to the aging population, especially when they foster healthy behaviors. Because of their natural interface, virtual agents are promising assistants for people in need of support. To engage people during an interaction with these technologies, such assistants need to match the users´ needs and preferences, especially with regard to social outcomes. A 2×4 between-subjects design was used to investigate the age-related differences of appearance effects in a human-agent interaction. In this study, 46 seniors and 84 students interacted in a health scenario with a virtual agent, whose appearance varied (cartoon-stylized humanoid agent, cartoon-stylized machine-like agent, more realistic humanoid agent, and nonembodied agent [voice only]). After the interaction, participants reported on the evaluation of the agent, usage intention, perceived presence of the agent, bonding toward the agent, and overall evaluation of the interaction.

Sobieraj, S., S.C. Eimler. What Really Counts - An Exploratory Study on the Impact of Aggregated Data on Person Perception. In: Journal of Business and Media Psychology, pp. 1-13, 2020.

Straßmann, C., S.C. Eimler, A. Arntz, A. Grewe, C. Kowalczyk, S. Sommer. Receiving Robot’s Advice: Does it Matter When and for What? In: International Conference on Social Robotics, November14th-18th, 2020

Two experimental online studies investigate the persuasive effect of robot’s advice on human’s moral decision-making. Using two different decision scenarios with varying complexity, the effect of the point of time when a robot gives its advice was examined. Participants either received advice directly after the decision scenario or stated an initial opinion first, received advice and had the chance to adjust their decision afterwards. The analysis explored whether this affects the adaption to the robot’s advice and the decision certainty as well as the evaluation of the robot. The assumption that people rely more on the robot’s advice when they receive it directly and that those people have a reduced decision certainty was only found in the complex decision task condition.

2019

Aditya, B. R., Nurhas, I., & Pawlowski, J. (2019). Towards Successful Implementation of a Virtual Classroom for Vocational Higher Education in Indonesia. In International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud (pp. 151-161). Springer, Cham.

The virtual classroom continues to grow, but it is becoming more and more the norm, and it is fundamentally different from the vocational students at the Indonesian university. With the promised benefits of the virtual classroom, many challenges and difficulties come in the implementation. Although there are already successful design principles for virtual classrooms that support organizations in overcoming the challenges, the approach to implementing the design principles of virtual classroom at the vocational higher education in Indonesia is still lacking. In this study, we aim to answer the research gap and used the design sciences research by interviewing the lecturers to design the solutions. The proposed design approaches were implemented in a course and evaluated with students from two different groups. Overall, the evaluation of the proposed approaches shows 1 significant results as an indicator of the benefits of the implementation of a virtual classroom for vocational students in Indonesia.

Arntz, A., Eimler, S. & Handmann, U. (2019). Teaching Practical Tasks with Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality: An Experimental Study Comparing Learning Outcomes. Poster presented at General Online Research, 06.03.2019-08.03.2019, Cologne.

 

Bludau, S., Brandenberg, G., Erle, L., & Eimler, S.C. (2019). When Gender-Bias Meets Fake-News. Results of Two Experimental Online-Studies.  Poster präsentiert auf der General Online Research Conference, Mar 6th – Mar 8nd 2019, Cologne, Germany.

 

Borgert, N (2019). Share It: Shared Decision Making as a new Paradigm for Human-Computer Interaction (Master Thesis). Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum.

The research motivation and economic interest in a new paradigm for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) originate from the rise of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems as well as their potential implementation at knowledge workplaces. This increasing interplay of so called Intelligent Cognitive Assistants (ICAs) and employees demonstrates a need for a new principal approach that incorporates specific and promising steps to create an interaction design in decision-making contexts. Aiming to address the stated need, this master thesis tests Shared Decision Making (SDM) as a new paradigm for HCI. SDM stems from the medical field and outlines a three-step method to improve decision-making by sharing preferences and agreeing on a choice. In this thesis, two pre-studies are carried out to prepare the main experiment. The first pre-study inspects via an online questionnaire job characteristics of knowledge workers to ensure an environmental fit for ICAs and identify inconvenient, routine tasks. The second pre-study is a workshop using the SeeMe-method that analyzes an archetypical decision process at knowledge workplaces. This allows inferences for software engineering aspects by taking individual needs into account. The main study experimentally assesses three central outcome measures of SDM in a Wizard-of-Oz design. In comparison to the control group without support, results indicate for SDM support in HCI significantly increased deliberation and higher satisfaction with the. Also, the intention to adhere to the choice made was not significantly reduced in the experimental group. Thus, the work offers a variety of research contributions and practice implications. In conclusion, the findings strongly recommend the implementation of SDM in HCI at knowledge workplaces.

Borgert, N. (2019). Share It: A New Paradigm for Interactions with Intelligent Cognitive Assistants. Poster presented at the ACM-W womENcourage, Rome, Italy.

This research project tests Shared Decision Making (SDM) as a new work-psychological paradigm for interactions between humans and Intelligent Cognitive Assistants (ICAs) in decision-making processes. The increasing interplay between employees and AI demonstrates a need for a new principal approach that incorporates specific and promising steps to create a master design of Human-Computer Interactions (HCIs) in decision-making contexts.

Brandenberg, G. & Eimler, S. (2019). Positive Psychology Meets Computer Science. Poster accepted at Annual Conference Improving University Teaching, Jul 24th – Jul 26nd 2019, Mülheim, Germany.

Positive Psychology is a recent paradigm in the German psychology landscape focusing on people’s strengths and the role of belonging, optimism and well-being. In a rapidly changing digitalized world it is a promising approach for higher education (e.g. 21st century skills) and a relevant mind-set in facing future challenges for individuals, companies and society enhancing work performance, creativity and resilience. Despite a fundamental impact on individuals and society, computer science programs typically do not address such ideas. We present a concept and lessons learned from a Positive Psychology-enhanced course for students of a HCI-program mixing lectures and problem-based-projects with a company in order to promote concept-internationalization and self-efficacy.

Dümpel, V., Grewe, A., Kowalczyk, C. & Eimler, S. (2019). Closing the Gap Between Theory and Practice: Impressions from two Service Learning Projects Focusing on Elderly Migrants and Female Refugees. Poster accepted at Annual Conference Improving University Teaching, Jul 24th – Jul 26nd 2019, Mülheim, Germany.

Closing the gaps between theory and practice is demanding in University education settings. Mostly, societal challenges of specific groups are only theoretically addressed; e.g. direct contact between developers and users in user interface development is seldom. Time constraints and high coordination effort lets teachers refrain from getting involved in Service Learning. We present insights and results from two projects from a course on “Usability and User Experience in Intercultural Contexts” as a part of a HCI-study program. In course 1, students designed the prototype of a communication platform for a diverse group of female refugees in a participatory design process. In course 2, students involved Turkish migrants of different age groups in the design of a culturally sensitive health app helping migrants navigate the German health system.

Dümpel, V., Eimler, S.C., Brandenberg, G., Straßmann, C., Arntz, A., Keßler, D., & Zielinski, S. (2019). Comparing the Effects of Virtual Reality vs. Tablet-Based Diversity Interventions. Poster accepted at 11th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, Sep 04th – Sep 06th 2019, Chemnitz, Germany.

 

Dümpel, V., Eimler, S.C., Brandenberg, G., Straßmann, C., Arntz, A., Keßler, D. & Zielinski, S. (2019). DiVirtuality - Designing and Testing a Virtual Gallery for Stereotype Reduction and Diversity Awareness. Presentation accepted at Technology, Mind & Society APA Conference, Oct 3rd - Oct 5th 2019, Washington, United States of America.

 

Grewe, A. Kowalczyk, C., Straßmann, C. & Eimler, S.C. (2019). “Hm.. I am not sure.” How Do Robots’ Uncertainty Expression and Physical Presence Affect Humans’ Moral Decision Making and Perception? Poster accepted at 11th Conference of the Media Psychology Division , Sep 04th – Sep 06th 2019, Chemnitz, Germany.

 

Markewitz, K., Glinski, P., Herold, M., Strassmann, C.,  Arndt, A. & Eimler, S.C. (2019). Style for Success? A Study on the Impact of Avatars’ Styling on Perceived Competence and Warmth. Poster präsentiert auf der General Online Research Conference, Mar 6th – Mar 8nd 2019, Cologne, Germany.

 

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., Pawlowski, J., . Why Should the Q-method Be Integrated Into the Design Science Research? A Systematic  Mapping Study, 10th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS), 11-14 August, 2019, Nokia, Finland

The Q-method has been utilized over time in various areas, including information systems. In this study, we used a systematic mapping to illustrate how the Q-method was applied within Information Systems (IS) community and proposing towards integration of Q-method into the Design Sciences Research (DSR) process as a tool for future research DSR-based IS studies. In this mapping study, we collected peer-reviewed journals from Basket-of-Eight journals and the digital library of the Association for Information Systems (AIS). Then we grouped the publications according to the process of DSR, and different variables for preparing Q-method from IS publications. We found that the potential of the Q-methodology can be used to support each main research stage of DSR processes and can serve as the useful tool to evaluate a system in the IS topic of system analysis and design.

Nurhas, I., Aditya, B.R., Geisler, S., Ojala, A., Pawlowski, J., . We Are “not” Too (Young/old) to Collaborate: Prominent Key Barriers to Intergenerational Innovation, Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), 8-12 July 2019, Xi’an, China

In this study, we analyzed the barriers to technology-supported intergenerational innovation to understand better how young and old can collaborate towards global innovations. Researchers in different disciplines have already identified various barriers to intergenerational collaboration. However, barriers are changing depending on the context of collaboration, and difficulties still exist to support intergenerational innovation in global settings. Therefore, we investigated the barriers that emerge when people work with someone decades older or younger. The results of our study have shown what barriers are influenced by age, what barriers exist only for senior and younger adults. The study theoretically contributes to deepening the Information Systems (IS) community's understanding of the barriers to intergenerational innovation that need to be considered when developing systems for global innovation.

Nurhas, I., Pawlowski, J., Geisler, S.,(2019). Towards humane digitization: a wellbeing-driven process of personas creation, in 5th International ACM In-Cooperation HCI and UX Conference in Indonesia (CHIuXiD), 1-9 April 2019, Bali, Indonesia.

Digital transformation is a process of digitizing the working and living environment in which people are at the center of digitization. In this paper, we present a personas-based guideline for system developers on how the humanization of digital transformation integrates into the design process. The proposed guideline uses the positive personas from the beginning as a basis for the transformation of the working environment into the digital form. We used the literature research as a preliminary study for the process of wellbeing-driven digital transformation design, consisting of questions for structuring the required information in the positive personas as well as a potential method that could be integrated into the wellbeing-based design process.

Nurhas, I., Aditya, B.R., Geisler, S.,  Pawlowski, J.,. Why does cultural diversity foster technology-enabled intergenerational collaboration?. The Fifth Information Systems International Conference (ISICO), 23-24 July 2019, Surabaya, Indonesia, Procedia Computer Science

Globalization and information technology enable people to join the movement of global citizenship and work without borders. However, different type of barriers existed that could affect collaboration in today’s work environment, in which different generations are involved. Although researchers have identified several technical barriers to intergenerational collaboration (iGOAL), the influence of cultural diversity on iGOAL has rarely been studied. Therefore, using a quantitative study approach, this paper investigates the impact of differences in cultural background on perceived technical and operational barriers to iGOAL. Our study reveals six barriers to IGC that are perceived differently by culturally diverse people (CDP) and non-CDP. Furthermore, CDP can foster IGC because CDP consider the barriers to be of less of a reason to avoid working with different generations than do non-CDP.

Rima Aditya, B., Permadi, Aditya., Nurhas, Irawan. and Pawlowski, Jan., (2019). Design Features for Gender-specific Differences in Blended Learning within Higher Education in Indonesia. In IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Education (IEEE TALE). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/TALE48000.2019.9225952

Blended learning offers learning solutions for higher educational institutions facing the industrial revolution 4.0. In this study, we investigated the influence factors student perceptions of blended learning based on gender-specific differences in Indonesia. We applied a research model to systematically assess the effect of design features on the effectiveness of blended learning indicators (intrinsic motivation and student satisfaction). Moreover, we evaluated the research model for both genders separately. Based on the quantitative survey of 223 Indonesian students, our study confirms that the design features significantly influence the effectiveness of blended learning for male and female students.

Strassmann, C., Arndt, A., Dahm, A., Nissen, D., Zwickler, B.,  Regy, B.,  Güven,M.,  Schulz, S. & Eimler, S.C. (2019). Do We Blame it for Its Gender? How Specific Gender Cues Affect the Evaluation of Virtual Online Assistants. Poster präsentiert auf der General Online Research Conference, Mar 6th – Mar 8nd 2019, Cologne, Germany.

 

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C.,  Arntz,A.,  Keßler,D.,  Zielinski, S.,  Brandenberg, G.,  Dümpel, V. & Handmann, U. (2019, April). Relax Yourself - Using Virtual Reality to Enhance Employees' Mental Health and Work Performance. Relax Yourself-Using Virtual Reality to Enhance Employees' Mental Health and Work Performance. In Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (p. LBW0286). ACM.

 

Strassmann, C. & Eimler, S. (2019). Learning by Doing: Lessons Learned from Interdisciplinary Research-Oriented Teaching. Poster accepted at Annual Conference Improving University Teaching , Jul 24th – Jul 26nd 2019, Mülheim, Germany.

Modern teaching methods aim to integrate active research parts executed by the students themselves to train their scientific skills, critical thinking and problem-solving skills, as well as collaboration and communication. We discuss lessons learned, benefits and barriers (especially) from Applied Statistics (3rd semester) and Social and Media Psychology (5th semester) courses in which student from computer science study programs had to accomplish a whole cycle of a research process including literature study, hypotheses generation, the setup of (online) experiments, data collection, analysis and documentation in conference posters. Using an instrument provided by Böttcher and Thiel (2018) we assessed the level of student’s individual perception of research skills.

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C., Arntz,A.,  Keßler,D., Zielinski, S., Brandenberg, G., Dümpel, V. & Handmann, U. (2019). Positive and Relaxing Effects of Virtual Reality Applications. Poster accepted at 11th Conference of the Media Psychology Division, Sep 04th – Sep 06th 2019, Chemnitz, Germany.

 

Strassmann, C., Eimler, S.C.,  Arntz, A.,  Keßler, D.,  Zielinski, S., Brandenberg, G.,  Dümpel, V. & Handmann, U. (2019). Virtual or Reality? Same Effects of Short-Term Relaxation Scenarios on Affect and Stress. Poster accepted at Technology, Mind & Society APA Conference, Oct 3rd - Oct 5th 2019, Washington, United States of America.

 

2018

Arntz, A., Eimler, S & Handmann, U. (2018). Artificial Intelligence Driven Human-Machine Collaboration Scenarios in Virtual Reality. Intelligent Automation Symposium, 14.11.2018- 16.11.2018, Münster.

 

Arntz, A., Keßler, D. & Eimler, S. (2018). Evaluation des Einflusses von Beleuchtung auf die Aufmerksamkeit innerhalb von Virtual Reality.  In: Dachselt, R. & Weber, G. (Hrsg.), Mensch und Computer 2018 - Workshopband. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V..

 

Borgert, N. (2018). Shared Decision Making: A New Paradigm for the Human-Machine-Interaction?. Poster presented at the AI Symposium, Münster, Germany.

Historically, the industrial revolution offered the chance to massively boost the nation’s productivity. The question is whether the second machine age can be also a game-changer for working conditions. The human-artificial intelligence setting is highly relevant, for instance regarding the future importance of robo-advisors. Hence, we deduce from theoretical foundations a new approach to design the human-machine-interaction.

Eimler, S., Geisler, S. & Mischewski, P. (2018). Ethik im autonomen Fahrzeug: Zum menschlichen Verhalten in drohenden Unfallsituationen. In: Dachselt, R. & Weber, G. (Hrsg.), Mensch und Computer 2018 - Workshopband. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V..

Öffentliche Diskussionen zum autonomen Fahren zeigen einen hohen Anspruch, dass die Algorithmen in kritischen Fällen Entscheidungen nach ethischen Kriterien fällen. Diese für die Vielzahl von denk-baren Verkehrssituationen so zu erfassen, dass sie den Vorstellungen eines größten Teils der Bevölke-rung entspricht, stellt eine große methodische Herausforderung dar. In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, in wie weit eine überlegte Entscheidung mit dem Verhalten in einem Fahrsimulator übereinstimmt. Dabei wird bei einem großen Teil der Teilnehmer*innen ein Widerspruch zwischen geäußertem beab-sichtigtem Handeln und tatsächlichem Handeln offenbar.

Günther, L., Osterhoff, A., Thiel, C., Sommer, S., Niehoff, M., Sharma, M., Handmann, U., Koch, O & Grüneberg, C. (2018). Wirksamkeit eines Smartphone-unterstützten körperlich-kognitiven Trainingsprogrammes zur quartiersbezogenen Teilhabeförderung älterer Menschen. In Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie - Gerontologie und Geriatrie Kongress Vielfalt des Alterns: biomedizinische und psychosoziale Herausforderungen, 51, S. 62, Köln, Germany, 2018. Springer, Heidelberg. ISSN: 0948-6704.

Joiko, M., Kohnen, F., Lapinski, K., Moudrik, H., Nurhas, I., Paproth, F., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2018). Enabling decentral collaborative innovation processes-A web based real time collaboration platform. Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik 2018, pp. 1531-1542.

The main goal of this paper is to define a collaborative innovation process as well as a supporting tool. It is motivated through the increasing competition on global markets and the resultant propagation of decentralized projects with a high demand of innovative collaboration in global contexts. It bases on a project accomplished by the author group. A detailed literature review and the action design research methodology of the project led to an enhanced process model for decentral collaborative innovation processes and a basic realization of a browser based real time tool to enable these processes. The initial evaluation in a practical distributed setting has shown that the created tool is a useful way to support collaborative innovation processes.

Keßler, D., Arntz, A. & Eimler, S. (2018). Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Virtual and Augmented Reality Learning Applications. Intelligent Automation Symposium, Münster.

 

März, P., & Handmann, U. (2018). Driver Stress Response to Self-driving Vehicles and Takeover Request–An Expert Assessment. In International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design: Future Trends and Applications (S. 737-743). Springer, Cham.

 

Meyer, M., Bollen, L., & Eimler, S.C. (2018). Emoji, Emoji on the Wall, Show Me One I Show You All - An Exploratory Study on the Connection Between Traits and Emoji Usage. General Online Research Conference, Feb 28th – Mar 2nd 2018, Cologne, Germany.

 

Nuñez, T.R. & Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M. (2018). Veränderung des Behandlungsalltags durch neue Medien: Roboter und Agenten in der psychologischen Intervention. In O. Kothgassner & A. Felnhofer (Hrsg.), Klinische Cyberpsychologie und Cybertherapie. München: UTB

 

Nuñez, T.R. & Eimler, S.C. (2018). What if I Lost it? When the Mere Imagination of Smartphone Absence Causes Anxiety. General Online Research Conference, Feb 28th – Mar 2nd 2018, Cologne, Germany.

Eine umfangreiche Studie zur Smartphone-Nutzung der Deutschen hat ergeben, dass sich 71% der Befragten nicht vorstellen können, ohne ihr Smartphone zu leben. Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, wie sehr die Omnipräsenz mobiler Kommunikationsgeräte auf die Psychologie des Menschen wirkt. Andere Studien zeigen, dass die Absenz mobiler Geräte zu einem erhöhten Stresslevel seitens der Nutzer führt und bestätigen damit den psychologischen Einfluss von Smartphones. In dieser Studie sollte die Annahme geprüft werden, dass allein die Vorstellung einer Absenz des Smartphones ausreicht, um Stressreaktionen hervorzurufen. Anhand der Ergebnisse konnte diese Annahme bestätigt werden, was nochmals die Bedeutung des Smartphones für den Menschen unterstreicht.

Nuñez, T.R., Grewe, A., Trienens, L.-M., Kowalczyk, C., Nitschke, D. Tran, B.T.F., & Eimler, S.C. (2018). Phubbing Concerns Us All. How the Mere Observation of Smartphone Use in Others’ Social Interactions Generates Negative Emotions and Attitudes in Observers. General Online Research Conference, Feb 28th – Mar 2nd 2018, Cologne, Germany.

Phubbing oder Phone-Snubbing bezeichnet und kritisiert die Abwendung der Aufmerksamkeit von sozialen Interaktionspartnern als Folge eigener Smartphone-Nutzung und kann als neue Form von Ostrazismus bzw. sozialem Ausschluss verstanden werden. Studien zu diesem Verhalten haben gezeigt, dass Phubbing mit negativen Konsequenzen in Bezug auf Personen- und Beziehungsbewertung einhergeht; es wurde jedoch bislang kaum untersucht, inwieweit Phubbing das nicht direkt an der Interaktion beteiligte soziale Umfeld beeinträchtigt. Diese Studie setzte sich mit dieser Frage auseinander und fand u.a., dass Personen, die Phubbing beobachteten, gestresster waren und mehr negative Emotionen empfanden, als solche, die der Phubbing-Situation nicht ausgesetzt waren.

Nurhas, I., de Fries, T., Geisler, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2018). Positive Computing as Paradigm to Overcome Barriers to Global Co-authoring of Open Educational Resources. In Proceedings of the 23rd Conference of Open Innovations Association FRUCT (S. 38). FRUCT Oy.

The adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER) can support collaboration and knowledge sharing. One of the main areas of the usage OER is the internationalization, i.e., the use in a global context. However, the globally distributed co-creation of digital materials is still low. Therefore, we identify essential barriers, in particular for co-authoring of OER in global environments. We use a design science research method to introduce a barrier framework for co-authoring OER in global settings and propose a wellbeing-based system design constructed from the barrier framework for OER co-authoring tool. We describe how positive computing concepts can be used to overcome barriers, emphasizing design that promotes the author’s sense of competence, relatedness, and autonomy.

2017

Günther, L., Osterhoff, A., Thiel, C., Sommer, S, Niehoff, M, Sharma, M.,Handmann, U., Koch, O.,, Grüneberg, C. (2017):  Quartier Agil” – Feasibility of Combined Physical and Cognitive Activities in the Neighborhood with Smartphone Support for Stimulating Social Participation in the Elderly. Proc. of the 8th Conference on HEPA, Zagreb, Croatia.

 

Nuñez, T.R., Bergmann, K., Prynda, K., & Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M., (2017). Lexical Alignment and Its Psychophysiological Effects in Human-Agent Interaction. Paper präsentiert auf der 10th Conference of the Media Psychology Division of the German Psychological Society, September 6th – 8th, Koblenz, Germany.

 

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S. & Pawlowski, J. (2017). Positive Personas: Integrating Well-being Determinants into Personas.In: Burghardt, M., Wimmer, R., Wolff, C. & Womser-Hacker, C. (Hrsg.), Mensch und Computer 2017 - Tagungsband. Regensburg: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.. (S. 387-390).

System design for well-being needs an appropriate tool to help designers to determine relevant requirements that can help human well-being to flourish. Personas come as a simple yet powerful tool in the early development stage of the user interface design. Considering well-being determinants in the early design process provide benefits for both the user and the development team. Therefore, in this short paper, we performed a literature study to provide a conceptual model of well-being in personas and propose positive design interventions in personas' creation process.

 

Nurhas, I., Pawlowski, J.,  Geisler, S., Kovtunenko M., Bayu, R. A. (2017): Group-centered framework towards a positive design of digital collaboration in global settings. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference  on industrial, enterprise, and system engineering, Bandung, Indonesia

globally distributed groups require collaborative systems to support their work. Besides being able to support the teamwork, these systems also should promote well-being and maximize the human potential that leads to an engaging system and joyful experience. Designing such system is a significant challenge and requires a thorough understanding of group work. We used the field theory as a lens to view the essential aspects of group motivation and then utilized collaboration personas to analyze the elements of group work. We integrated well-being determinants as engagement factors to develop a group-centered framework for digital collaboration in a global setting. Based on the outcomes, we proposed a conceptual framework to design an engaging collaborative system and recommend system values that can be used to evaluate the system further

2015

Pawlowski, Jan (2015). Positive Computing - A New Trend in Business and Information Systems Engineering?, Business & Information Systems Engineering 6 (57), pp. 405-408. 

Available at: aisel.aisnet.org/bise/vol57/iss6/6